“种姓划分、腐败和宗教”:奥巴马对印度的看法超越了甘地、拉马亚纳

2020-11-19 10:01

'Divided by Caste, Corruption and Religion': Obama's Views on India Go Beyond Gandhi, Ramayana SPg世界播

“种姓划分、腐败和宗教”:奥巴马对印度的看法超越了甘地、拉马亚纳SPg世界播


暂无SPg世界播


Former US President Barack Obama's "tell-all" memoir "A Promised Land" has been ruffling feathers since the first day of its release. Be it the rather untoward dig at Congress chief Rahul Gandhi or his comments on former chief Sonia Gandhi and former Indian PM Rahul Gandhi, the book has already caused waves in India. SPg世界播

美国前总统巴拉克·奥巴马(Barack Obama)的回忆录《乐土》(A Promised Land)自发行第一天起就引起了轩然大波。无论是对国大党主席拉胡尔·甘地(Rahul Gandhi)相当令人不快的挖苦,还是他对前国大党主席索尼娅·甘地(Sonia Gandhi)和前印度总理拉胡尔·甘地(Rahul Gandhi)的评论,这本书已经在。SPg世界播


But that's not all that Obama wrote about in his memoir. Excerpts from the book that deal with India's problems with caste, poverty, rivalry with Pakistan, and political nepotism are being widely shared. SPg世界播

但这并不是奥巴马在回忆录中所写的全部内容。这本书的摘录涉及印度的种姓、贫困、与巴基斯坦的竞争和政治裙带关系等问题,正在被广泛分享。SPg世界播


But what does Barack Obama really think about India? His book offers a mixed bag of emotions. On the one hand, Obama is seen praising India's pluralism, its current stock of Opposition leaders and cultural heritage while stating that he was inspired by Gandhi and that he grew up listening to Hindu texts like Ramayana and Mahabharata. SPg世界播

但巴拉克·奥巴马(Barack Obama)对印度的真实想法是什么呢?他的书提供了一个喜忧参半的包袱。一方面,奥巴马赞扬了印度的多元化、目前的反对党领袖和文化遗产,同时表示他受到了甘地的启发,他是听着印度教的经文长大的,比如《罗摩衍那》和《摩诃婆罗多》。SPg世界播


On the other, the former US President sometimes seems to reduce the country to an imperialist's view of a "third-world" nation. SPg世界播

另一方面,这位美国前总统有时似乎把这个国家降格为帝国主义对“第三世界”国家的看法。SPg世界播


The nation of Gandhi and Gandhis SPg世界播

甘地和甘地的国家。SPg世界播


The 44th US President spends a good bit of his portions on India talking about Indian leaders, particularly Mahatma Gandhi whom he claims was the primary reason behind his fascination with India. SPg世界播

这位美国第44任总统花了大量篇幅在印度,谈论印度领导人,尤其是圣雄甘地(Mahatma Gandhi),他声称甘地是他迷恋印度的主要原因。SPg世界播


"More than anything, though, my fascination with India had to do with Mahatma Gandhi. Along with (Abraham) Lincoln, (Martin Luther) King, and (Nelson) Mandela, Gandhi had profoundly influenced my thinking," writes Obama, who had visited India twice as president. SPg世界播

“不过,最重要的是,我对印度的迷恋与圣雄甘地有关。与(亚伯拉罕)林肯、(马丁·路德)·金和(纳尔逊)曼德拉一起,甘地深刻地影响了我的思想,”奥巴马写道,他作为总统曾两次访问印度。SPg世界播


Gandhi's non-violent campaign for Indian independence from Britain, which began in 1915 and continued for more than 30 years, hadn't just helped overcome an empire and liberate much of the subcontinent, it had set off a moral charge that pulsed around the globe, he writes. SPg世界播

他写道,甘地从英国手中争取印度独立的非暴力运动始于1915年,持续了30多年,不仅帮助征服了一个帝国,解放了印度次大陆的大部分地区,还掀起了一场席卷全球的道德浪潮。SPg世界播


"It became a beacon for other dispossessed, marginalised groups - including Black Americans in the Jim Crow South - intent on securing their freedom," says Obama. SPg世界播

奥巴马说:“它成了其他被剥夺权利、被边缘化的群体的灯塔--包括南部吉姆·克罗的美国黑人--决心确保他们的自由。”SPg世界播


But despite being impressed by Mahatma Gandhi, whose "successful non-violent campaign against the British rule became a beacon for other dispossessed, marginalised groups", Obama rues that the Indian icon was unable to successfully address the caste system or prevent the partition of the county based on religion. SPg世界播

尽管圣雄甘地(Mahatma Gandhi)留下了深刻印象,他“成功的非暴力反对英国统治的运动成为了其他被剥夺权利、被边缘化的群体的指路明灯”,但奥巴马仍对这位印度偶像未能成功解决种姓制度或阻止该国因宗教而分裂感到懊悔。SPg世界播


The other Gandhis that find space in the pages of the first volume of Obama's book, are Congress's Sonia and Rahul Gandhi. And the comments are not very flattering. SPg世界播

在奥巴马的书的第一卷中找到空白处的其他甘地是国会的索尼娅和拉胡尔·甘地。而且这些评论也不是很讨人喜欢。SPg世界播


Obsessing over Opposition? SPg世界播

痴迷于反对派?SPg世界播


Obama is full of praise for former Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh, a member of the "often persecuted Sikh religious minority". But he writes that Singh's ascension to the PM's chair, which is “sometimes heralded as a hallmark of the country’s progress in overcoming sectarian divides, was somewhat deceiving”. SPg世界播

奥巴马对前总理曼莫汉·辛格博士赞不绝口,辛格博士是“经常受到迫害的锡克宗教少数派”的一员。但他写道,辛格登上总理宝座,“有时被认为是该国在克服宗派分歧方面取得进步的标志,但这在某种程度上是欺骗性的”。他写道,辛格登上总理宝座,“有时被认为是该国在克服宗派分歧方面取得进步的标志”。SPg世界播


"More than one political observer believed that she’d chosen Singh precisely because as an elderly Sikh with no national political base, he posed no threat to her 40-year-old son, Rahul, whom she was grooming to take over the Congress Party," Obama writes. SPg世界播

奥巴马写道:“不止一位政治观察家认为,她之所以选择辛格,正是因为他是一名年迈的锡克教徒,没有全国性的政治基础,他对她40岁的儿子拉胡尔(Rahul)不构成威胁,她正在培养拉胡尔接管国大党。”SPg世界播


But Obama is smitten with Singh, whom he describes as “wise, thoughtful, and scrupulously honest” and “man of uncommon wisdom and decency” with a white beard and a turban that “to the Western eye lent him the air of a holy man”. SPg世界播

但奥巴马被辛格迷住了,他形容辛格“聪明、有思想、诚实至极”,他留着白胡子,戴着头巾,“在西方人看来,这给他带来了圣人的气质”,“他的智慧和正派是非同寻常的”。SPg世界播


He writes that with Singh, he developed “a warm and productive relationship” and forged agreements for cooperation on counterterrorism, global health, nuclear security, and trade despite a bureaucracy’s historic suspicion of the US”. SPg世界播

他写道,尽管官僚机构对美国产生了历史上的怀疑,但他与辛格发展了“一种温馨而富有成效的关系”,并就反恐、全球健康、核安全和贸易等领域达成了合作协议。SPg世界播


Obama also describes meeting Sonia Gandhi at a dinner hosted by Singh, calling her “a striking woman in her sixties, dressed in a traditional sari, with dark, probing eyes and a quiet, regal presence”. SPg世界播

奥巴马还描述了在辛格主持的晚宴上与索尼娅·甘地(Sonia Gandhi)的会面,称她是“一个60多岁的引人注目的女人,穿着传统的纱丽,有一双深色的探索性眼睛和一种安静而威严的风度”。SPg世界播


It was clear, he writes, that the power of the “former stay-at-home mother of European descent” could be attributed “to a shrewd and forceful intelligence”. SPg世界播

他写道,很明显,这位“欧洲血统的前全职妈妈”的力量可以归功于“精明而有力的情报”。SPg世界播


During the dinner, Obama says that Sonia Gandhi deferred to Singh on policy matters, but tried to steer the conversation to her son. SPg世界播

在晚宴上,奥巴马说,索尼娅·甘地在政策问题上服从辛格,但试图把话题引向她的儿子。SPg世界播


Obama describes Rahul Gandhi as seeming to be “smart and earnest, his good looks resembling his mother’s”. SPg世界播

奥巴马形容拉胡尔·甘地看起来“聪明而认真,他长得很像他母亲”。SPg世界播


He spoke about “progressive politics,” Obama writes, “occasionally pausing to probe me on the details of my 2008 campaign”. SPg世界播

奥巴马写道,他谈到了“进步的政治”,“偶尔会停下来调查我2008年竞选的细节”。SPg世界播


“But there was a nervous, unformed quality about him, as if he were a student who’d done the coursework and was eager to impress the teacher but deep down lacked either the aptitude or the passion to master the subject,” Obama concludes. SPg世界播

奥巴马总结道:“但他身上有一种紧张、未成形的品质,就好像他是一个完成了课程作业的学生,渴望给老师留下深刻印象,但内心深处缺乏掌握这门学科的能力或热情。”SPg世界播


Divided by Religion, Caste and Corruption SPg世界播

按宗教、种姓和腐败划分。SPg世界播


Obama writes that in many respects, modern-day India counted as a success story, having survived repeated changeovers in government, bitter feuds within political parties, various armed separatist movements, and all manner of corruption scandals. SPg世界播

奥巴马写道,在许多方面,现代印度被视为一个成功的故事,经历了反复的政府更迭,政党内部的激烈争执,各种武装分裂运动,以及各种腐败丑闻。SPg世界播


"The transition to a more market-based economy in the 1990s had unleashed the extraordinary entrepreneurial talents of the Indian people -- leading to soaring growth rates, a thriving high-tech sector, and a steadily expanding middle class... and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh's economic reforms lifted millions out of poverty", he writes. SPg世界播

他写道:“20世纪90年代向更加市场化的经济转型,释放了印度人民非凡的创业才华--导致经济增长率飙升,高科技产业蓬勃发展,中产阶级稳步壮大……印度总理曼莫汉·辛格的经济改革让数百万人摆脱了贫困。”SPg世界播


Obama, however, adds, "Despite its genuine economic progress, though, India remained a chaotic and impoverished place: largely divided by religion and caste, captive to the whims of corrupt local officials and power brokers, hamstrung by a parochial bureaucracy that was resistant to change". SPg世界播

然而,奥巴马补充说,“尽管印度在经济上取得了真正的进步,但它仍然是一个混乱和贫穷的地方:在很大程度上被宗教和种姓分裂,受制于腐败的地方官员和权力掮客的心血来潮,受到抵制变革的狭隘官僚机构的束缚。”SPg世界播


In another section of the book, Obama mentioned almost in passing that, "Violence, both public and private, remained an all-too-pervasive part of Indian life". A report by Indian news agency IANS has dubbed the portions of the book on India "supercilious" and containing blanket statements that attempt to paint India in a single, imperialist stroke of using known keywords such as poverty, caste and religion. SPg世界播

在这本书的另一个部分,奥巴马几乎是顺便提到,“暴力,无论是公开的还是私下的,仍然是印度生活中无处不在的一部分。”印度通讯社ians的一篇报道称,这本书关于印度的部分内容“目中无人”,并包含了一些笼统的声明,试图用贫穷、种姓和宗教等已知关键词来一笔带过帝国主义式的描绘印度。SPg世界播


India-Pakistan relations SPg世界播

印巴关系。SPg世界播


But Obama's views on India don't end there. SPg世界播

但奥巴马对印度的看法并不仅限于此。SPg世界播


In the memoir, Obama also seemed to take a dig at India's nationalism, when he writes that, "Expressing hostility toward Pakistan was still the quickest route to national unity". He also commented on India's nuclear pride and here too, made a point to single out India's rivalry with Pakistan as being the focal point of its foreign policy. SPg世界播

在回忆录中,奥巴马似乎还挖苦了印度的民族主义,他写道,“表达对巴基斯坦的敌意仍然是通向国家团结的最快途径”。他还评论了印度的核自豪感,在这里,他也特别指出,印度与巴基斯坦的竞争是其外交政策的焦点。SPg世界播


Many Indians take "great pride in the knowledge that their country had developed a nuclear weapons program to match Pakistan", he writes. Coming from the former President of a nation that spent decades locked in a fierce ideologically-driven (or justified) nuclear arms race and also the only country in the world to have used a nuclear bomb on its enemies, Obama's comments on India's "nuclear pride" may fall a bit flat SPg世界播

他写道,许多印度人“非常自豪地知道,他们的国家已经发展出了与巴基斯坦相匹敌的核武器计划”。奥巴马是一个几十年来陷入激烈的意识形态驱动(或正当的)核军备竞赛的国家的前总统,也是世界上唯一一个对敌人使用过核弹的国家。奥巴马对印度“核自豪感”的评论可能有些落空。SPg世界播


It also may be noted that while Obama won on a huge mandate after promising to ends all of America's wars and remove the nation from its constant war footing, the United States had active "military involvement" in the eight countries in 2016 under President Obama. As per a report in The Atlantic, a U.S. Special Operations Command spokesman had once confirmed to the publication that on the day he had been questioned, the United States had 82 special operations forces deployed across the world. SPg世界播

还应该指出的是,尽管奥巴马在承诺结束美国所有战争并让美国摆脱持续不断的战争状态后,赢得了巨大的授权,但在奥巴马总统的领导下,美国在2016年积极地“军事介入”了这八个国家。据《大西洋月刊》的一篇报道,美国特种作战司令部发言人曾向该刊物证实,在他接受讯问的当天,美国在世界各地部署了82名特种部队。SPg世界播


On missing out Narendra Modi SPg世界播

关于错过纳伦德拉·莫迪(Narendra Modi)。SPg世界播


There isn't much on the BJP or even a mention of Narendra Modi in the memoir, which ends in 2011. While the fact has already been publicised by opposition leaders like Congress's Shashi Tharoor, critics argue that this was just the first part of Obama's memoir. the next part is expected to pick up from after that and thus is expected to contain more on the Narendra Modi years under the Bharatiya Janata Party. SPg世界播

这本将于2011年结束的回忆录中没有太多关于人民党的内容,甚至没有提到纳伦德拉·莫迪(Narendra Modi)。虽然像国会的沙希·塔鲁尔这样的反对派领导人已经公布了这一事实,但批评者认为这只是奥巴马回忆录的第一部分。下一部分预计将从那以后开始,因此预计将包含更多关于印度人民党(Bharatiya Janata Party)领导下的纳伦德拉·莫迪(Narendra Modi)岁月的内容。SPg世界播


Obama does, however, mention a private chat with then PM Singh without their aides before a dinner. Obama indicates that in course of the dinner, Singh had spoken of a premonition of the rise of the BJP and Obama writes that he too "wondered what would happen when he left office". SPg世界播

然而,奥巴马确实提到了在晚餐前与当时的总理辛格在没有他们助手的情况下私下交谈。奥巴马表示,在晚宴上,辛格谈到了印度人民党崛起的预感,奥巴马写道,他也“想知道他离任后会发生什么”。SPg世界播


Obama said that he had been "doubtful" that the baton would be passed on to Rahul Gandhi in order to "preserve(ing) the Congress Party’s dominance over the divisive nationalism touted by the BJP”. SPg世界播

奥巴马表示,他一直“怀疑”是否会将接力棒交给拉胡尔·甘地(Rahul Gandhi),以便“保持国大党对印度人民党鼓吹的分裂民族主义的统治地位”。SPg世界播


He says it wouldn’t be Singh’s fault and wonders if "violence, greed, corruption, nationalism, racism, and religious intolerance" were "too strong for any democracy to permanently contain". SPg世界播

他说,这不会是辛格的错,并怀疑“暴力、贪婪、腐败、民族主义、种族主义和宗教不容忍”是否“太强烈,任何民主都无法永久遏制”。SPg世界播


While Obama does touch upon a variety of topics in the memoir, readers at some point may be left wondering if the book perhaps at times reduces India to the same Western stereotypes that his White predecessors have previously attributed to India. SPg世界播

虽然奥巴马在回忆录中确实触及了各种主题,但读者可能会在某个时候怀疑,这本书是否有时会让印度陷入他的白人前任之前认为的印度的西方刻板印象。SPg世界播

© 2016 世界播 www.shijiebobao.com 中国互联网举报中心 京ICP证140141号 鄂ICP备18018000号-1
违法和不良信息举报: