这7个绿色目标实现了吗?

2020-11-19 07:41

Green targets: Do governments meet them? AX1世界播

绿色目标:政府实现了吗?AX1世界播


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Prime Minister Boris Johnson's plan to tackle climate change is the latest in a long list of government pledges and targets on the environment. AX1世界播

英国首相鲍里斯·约翰逊(Boris Johnson)应对气候变化的计划是政府一长串环境承诺和目标中的最新一项。AX1世界播


Successive prime ministers - both Labour and Conservative - have set targets on everything from carbon emissions to tree planting. AX1世界播

历届首相--无论是工党还是保守党--都在从碳排放到植树的方方面面设定了目标。AX1世界播


"UK government's record on environmental targets is a bit hit and miss - but mostly miss," says Doug Parr, policy director at Greenpeace UK. AX1世界播

英国绿色和平组织(GreenPeace UK)的政策主管道格·帕尔(Doug Parr)表示:“英国政府在环境目标方面的记录有点偶然--但大部分都没有做到。”AX1世界播


"Targets are a great way of expressing government vision and ambition, but they become meaningless without the policies, funding, regulation and enforcement necessary to see them delivered." AX1世界播

“目标是表达政府愿景和抱负的一种很好的方式,但如果没有实现这些目标所必需的政策、资金、监管和执法,这些目标就变得毫无意义。”AX1世界播


So how successful have British governments been in meeting their green targets? AX1世界播

那么,英国政府在实现他们的绿色目标方面取得了多大的成功呢?AX1世界播


1. Cut CO2 emissions by 20% by 2010 AX1世界播

1.到2010年减少20%的二氧化碳排放。AX1世界播


During its first year in office, the Labour government under Tony Blair committed to cutting UK carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 2010 to 20% below 1990 levels. AX1世界播

在托尼·布莱尔(Tony Blair)领导下的工党政府执政的第一年,承诺到2010年将英国二氧化碳(CO2)排放量减少到1990年水平的20%。AX1世界播


In 1990, total CO2 emissions stood at 595.7 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e), according to official data. By 2010, this figure had decreased to 498.5 MtCO2e. AX1世界播

根据官方数据,1990年,二氧化碳排放总量为5.957亿吨二氧化碳当量(MtCO2e)。到2010年,这一数字已降至498.5 MtCO2。AX1世界播


That's a reduction of 16.3%, which means Labour fell short of its target. AX1世界播

这是16.3%的降幅,这意味着工党没有达到目标。AX1世界播


The Labour government did, however, succeed in meeting a less ambitious target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 12.5% by 2010 as part of an international agreement known as the Kyoto Protocol. AX1世界播

然而,工党政府确实成功地实现了一个不那么雄心勃勃的目标,即在2010年之前减少12.5%的温室气体排放,这是被称为京都议定书的国际协议的一部分。AX1世界播


Greenhouse gases include not just carbon dioxide but other polluting gases such as methane and nitrous oxide. AX1世界播

温室气体不仅包括二氧化碳,还包括其他污染气体,如甲烷和一氧化二氮。AX1世界播


Between 1990 and 2010, total greenhouse gas emissions fell by 24.3%. AX1世界播

1990年至2010年间,温室气体排放总量下降了24.3%。AX1世界播


2. Net zero emissions by 2050 AX1世界播

2.到2050年实现净零排放。AX1世界播


In 2019, the UK became the first country to pass a law requiring the government to reach net-zero emissions by 2050. AX1世界播

2019年,英国成为第一个通过法律要求政府到2050年实现净零排放的国家。AX1世界播


Net zero would mean the country would be removing as much carbon from the atmosphere as it was emitting. AX1世界播

净零将意味着该国将从大气中消除与其排放一样多的碳。AX1世界播


Having targets that far in the future creates problems. AX1世界播

把目标定在遥远的未来会带来问题。AX1世界播


"Nobody can speak for future governments, so unless targets can be future-proofed they are unlikely to be effective," said Ruth Chambers from Greener UK, a coalition of environmental organisations. AX1世界播

环保组织联盟“绿色英国”(Greener UK)的露丝·钱伯斯(Ruth Chambers)表示:“没有人能代表未来的政府发言,因此,除非目标能够面向未来,否则它们不太可能有效。”AX1世界播


But the Climate Change Committee, an independent public advisory body, is monitoring whether the UK is on track to meet this one. AX1世界播

但独立的公共咨询机构气候变化委员会(Climate Change Committee)正在监测英国是否走上了实现这一目标的轨道。AX1世界播


Its recent report concluded that the UK power sector was adapting to meet the net-zero target thanks to contracts to construct large-scale wind and solar energy projects. AX1世界播

该公司最近的报告得出结论,由于签订了建设大型风能和太阳能项目的合同,英国电力行业正在进行调整,以实现净零目标。AX1世界播


However, the report also warned the government that it would have to move faster to decarbonise industry, transport and construction if it was going to stay on track for its target. AX1世界播

然而,该报告也警告政府,如果要保持在实现目标的轨道上,就必须加快工业、交通和建筑业的脱碳步伐。AX1世界播


3. 10% of electricity from renewables by 2010 AX1世界播

3.到2010年,10%的电力来自可再生能源。AX1世界播


In 2000, the Labour government outlined plans to increase the use of renewable energy to power the UK's electricity grid, pledging to generate 10% of electricity from renewables by 2010. AX1世界播

2000年,工党政府概述了增加使用可再生能源为英国电网供电的计划,承诺到2010年可再生能源发电量占总发电量的10%。AX1世界播


Renewable energy refers to energy sources such as wind and solar, which are not depleted when used and tend to generate power without causing pollution or emissions. AX1世界播

可再生能源是指风能和太阳能等能源,它们在使用时不会枯竭,而且往往不会造成污染或排放。AX1世界播


When Labour left government in 2010, however, renewable energy sources generated enough power to fuel just 6.9% of the electricity grid. According to government data, renewables - mainly wind, solar and biomass - contributed 26.2 terawatt-hours (TWh) out of a total of 382.1 TWh. AX1世界播

然而,当工党在2010年离开政府时,可再生能源的发电量只够为6.9%的电网提供燃料。根据政府数据,可再生能源-主要是风能、太阳能和生物质-贡献了总计382.1太瓦时中的26.2太瓦时(TWh)。AX1世界播


However, the use of renewables did more than double over this period - it had only been 2.8% in 2000. AX1世界播

然而,可再生能源的使用量在此期间翻了一番还多--2000年仅为2.8%。AX1世界播


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4. All new homes zero-carbon by 2016 AX1世界播

4.到2016年,所有新建住宅实现零碳。AX1世界播


In 2006, then-Chancellor Gordon Brown pledged to make the UK one of the first countries to adopt a low-carbon housebuilding policy by introducing the Code for Sustainable Homes. AX1世界播

2006年,时任财政大臣戈登·布朗(Gordon Brown)承诺,通过引入可持续住房代码,使英国成为首批采用低碳建房政策的国家之一。AX1世界播


His government then announced that from 2016 all new homes would be zero carbon thanks to changes to the planning system and a gradual tightening of building regulations. AX1世界播

他的政府随后宣布,由于规划系统的变化和建筑法规的逐步收紧,从2016年起,所有新住宅将实现零碳。AX1世界播


This would involve new homes generating power using solar panels and wind turbines to offset their emissions of greenhouse gases. AX1世界播

这将包括新建家庭使用太阳能电池板和风力涡轮机发电,以抵消温室气体的排放。AX1世界播


In 2011, the Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition government under David Cameron carried over this pledge to that year's Budget, but added that carbon emissions could be offset by the use of devices both on-site and off-site. AX1世界播

2011年,戴维·卡梅伦(David Cameron)领导的保守党-自民党联合政府将这一承诺延续到当年的预算中,但补充说,现场和场外设备的使用可以抵消碳排放。AX1世界播


But in 2015 the Conservative government scrapped the new regulations, meaning there would no longer be an obligation on housebuilders from 2016 onwards to achieve zero-carbon. AX1世界播

但在2015年,保守党政府废除了新规定,这意味着从2016年起,房屋建筑商将不再有义务实现零碳。AX1世界播


Of the more than 210,000 houses built in 2016 only 18,922 (or 9.0%) achieved the highest environmental impact rating, meaning the vast majority were not zero-carbon. AX1世界播

在2016年建造的21万多套房屋中,只有18922套(9.0%)达到了最高的环境影响评级,这意味着绝大多数房屋不是零碳的。AX1世界播


5. Plant 5000 hectares of trees a year AX1世界播

5.每年植树5000公顷。AX1世界播


In 2018, Theresa May's government announced a commitment to reach 12% forest cover in England by 2060, which would involve planting 5000 hectares a year. A hectare can contain between 1,000 and 2,500 trees, so at a midpoint, 5,000 hectares would be just under nine million trees. AX1世界播

2018年,特雷莎·梅(Theresa May)政府宣布了到2060年英国森林覆盖率达到12%的承诺,这将涉及每年种植5000公顷。一公顷可以容纳1000到2500棵树,所以在中间点,5000公顷将略低于900万棵树。AX1世界播


In the first year after the announcement, 1,420 hectares were planted. AX1世界播

在宣布这一消息后的第一年,种植面积为1420公顷。AX1世界播


Trees currently cover about 10% of English land, far behind the EU average of 38%. AX1世界播

目前,树木覆盖了英国约10%的土地,远远落后于欧盟38%的平均水平。AX1世界播


The government says it wants to work with landowners to grow woodland cover, and highlights schemes like a 19m fund to encourage large-scale planting and grants of up to 6,800 per hectare to plant and protect trees. AX1世界播

政府表示,希望与土地所有者合作种植林地,并强调了1900万GB基金等计划,以鼓励大规模种植,并向每公顷提供高达6800 GB的补贴,以种植和保护树木。AX1世界播


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6. Meet air quality targets AX1世界播

6.达到空气质量指标。AX1世界播


The UK's targets on air quality come from the EU's Air Quality Directive of 2008, which sets limits for the amount of certain pollutants that may be found in the air. AX1世界播

英国的空气质量目标来自欧盟2008年的《空气质量指令》(Air Quality Directive),该指令对空气中可能发现的某些污染物的数量设定了限制。AX1世界播


It became part of UK law in 2010, with separate legislation in each of the four nations. The government has been clear that it does not plan to change these targets after Brexit, although clearly they will no longer be enforced by EU institutions. AX1世界播

它于2010年成为英国法律的一部分,这四个国家都有单独的立法。英国政府一直明确表示,不打算在英国退欧后改变这些目标,尽管很明显,欧盟机构将不再执行这些目标。AX1世界播


In 2014, the EU Commission began proceedings against the UK for failing to meet nitrogen dioxide (NO2) targets, which was followed by a final warning in 2017 for repeated breaches. There was then action in the European Court of Justice against the UK in 2018. AX1世界播

2014年,欧盟委员会开始对英国提起诉讼,指控其未能达到二氧化氮(NO2)目标,随后在2017年因屡次违规而发出最后警告。2018年,欧洲法院(European Court Of Justice)对英国采取了行动。AX1世界播


The EU directives also allow private groups to take legal action in the UK courts against the government for failing to meet air quality targets. AX1世界播

欧盟指令还允许私人团体在英国法院对未能达到空气质量目标的政府采取法律行动。AX1世界播


A group called ClientEarth did just this, which led to the Supreme Court repeatedly ordering the government to come up with new air quality plans because existing ones were not good enough. AX1世界播

一个名为ClientEarth的组织就是这么做的,这导致最高法院一再命令政府拿出新的空气质量计划,因为现有的计划不够好。AX1世界播


7. Achieve good water quality by 2015 AX1世界播

7.到2015年实现水质优良。AX1世界播


The UK adopted the EU's 2000 Water Framework Directive, which required all member states to achieve at least "good" status for all bodies of water by 2015. AX1世界播

英国采纳了欧盟2000年的水框架指令,该指令要求所有成员国在2015年前至少达到所有水体的“良好”状态。AX1世界播


Water quality is a devolved matter, but the combined statistics show that in 2015, 30% of bodies of surface water were "good" and 5% were "high", with the proportion being good or better having barely changed since 2008. AX1世界播

水质是一件下放的事情,但综合统计数据显示,2015年,30%的地表水水体为“良好”,5%的水体为“高”,良好或较好的比例自2008年以来几乎没有变化。AX1世界播


The directive allowed for the target to be extended to 2027 at the latest and for lower targets to be set under certain circumstances. AX1世界播

该指令允许将目标延长至最晚2027年,并在某些情况下设定更低的目标。AX1世界播


A Defra official said in 2012 that the UK would not meet the 100% "good" target by 2027 and was instead hoping to achieve 75% "good" by that time. AX1世界播

英国食品和药物管理局的一位官员在2012年表示,到2027年,英国将无法实现100%“良好”的目标,而是希望到那时达到75%的“良好”。AX1世界播


An Environment Agency report earlier this year said all of the rivers, lakes and streams in England are polluted and there had been no progress towards the target of 100% healthy waters by 2027. AX1世界播

环境局今年早些时候的一份报告称,英国所有的河流、湖泊和溪流都受到了污染,到2027年100%健康水域的目标没有取得任何进展。AX1世界播


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