温暖的冬天与溺水风险增加有关

2020-11-19 07:39

Climate change: Warmer winters linked to increased drowning risk 6Ey世界播

气候变化:冬季变暖与溺水风险增加有关。6Ey世界播


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Winter activities on ice are becoming increasingly dangerous as the world warms, scientists say. 6Ey世界播

科学家称,随着全球变暖,冬季冰上活动正变得越来越危险。6Ey世界播


When researchers looked at data on drowning accidents in largely frozen lakes or rivers, they saw a "strong correlation" to rising temperatures. 6Ey世界播

当研究人员查看在结冰的湖泊或河流中发生的溺水事故的数据时,他们发现与气温上升有“很强的相关性”。6Ey世界播


They found that deaths from drowning were five times higher when warmer weather made the ice thinner and weaker. 6Ey世界播

他们发现,当天气变暖使冰层变薄变弱时,溺水死亡人数要高出五倍。6Ey世界播


Children aged under nine years and younger adults were most at risk. 6Ey世界播

9岁以下的儿童和更年轻的成年人风险最大。6Ey世界播


For indigenous peoples in many northern regions of the world, livelihoods often depend on access to frozen lakes in winter for hunting, fishing and travel. 6Ey世界播

对于世界许多北方地区的土著人民来说,生计往往依赖于冬季进入结冰的湖泊打猎、捕鱼和旅行。6Ey世界播


In countries like the US, Canada and Russia, winter leisure activities such as skating or tobogganing on ice are also hugely popular. 6Ey世界播

在美国、加拿大和俄罗斯等国,冰上滑冰或雪橇等冬季休闲活动也非常受欢迎。6Ey世界播


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But as the world warms, winter ice is becoming less stable and scientists believe it poses a greater threat of accidental drowning. 6Ey世界播

但随着全球变暖,冬季冰层变得越来越不稳定,科学家们认为它构成了更大的意外溺水威胁。6Ey世界播


Canadian researchers looked at data on 4,000 drowning events in 10 countries over three decades since the 1990s. 6Ey世界播

加拿大研究人员查看了自20世纪90年代以来10个国家30年来4000起溺水事件的数据。6Ey世界播


They found that higher temperatures were a good predictor of the number of deaths by drowning. 6Ey世界播

他们发现,较高的气温可以很好地预测溺水死亡人数。6Ey世界播


"We can confidently say that there is a quite a strong correlation between warmer winter air temperatures and more winter drownings," said study leader Sapna Sharma, from York University in Toronto, Canada. 6Ey世界播

来自加拿大多伦多约克大学的研究带头人萨普娜·夏尔马说:“我们可以自信地说,冬季气温升高和更多的冬季溺水之间存在着很强的相关性。”6Ey世界播


"Almost half of the winter drownings were associated with warmer temperatures." 6Ey世界播

“几乎一半的冬季溺水事件都与气温升高有关。”6Ey世界播


The researchers collated data from official sources including coroner's offices. They were able to compare these figures to longstanding records from lakes showing when ice formed and melted each winter. 6Ey世界播

研究人员整理了包括验尸官办公室在内的官方来源的数据。他们能够将这些数据与湖泊的长期记录进行比较,这些记录显示了每年冬天冰形成和融化的时间。6Ey世界播


Canada and the US had the highest number of drownings related to ice, an issue that was particularly acute among indigenous communities further north. 6Ey世界播

加拿大和美国与冰有关的溺水人数最多,这一问题在更靠北的土著社区中尤为严重。6Ey世界播


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Ice fishing is very popular in many northern countries 6Ey世界播

冰钓在许多北方国家很受欢迎6Ey世界播


The use of snowmobiles on lakes was associated with many of the lake fatalities. 6Ey世界播

在湖泊上使用雪地摩托与许多湖泊死亡事件有关。6Ey世界播


One of the saddest aspects of the study was the fact that many of the victims were very young. 6Ey世界播

这项研究最令人难过的方面之一是,许多受害者都非常年轻。6Ey世界播


"We found that almost half of those drowned in Minnesota where there was no vehicle involved were children under nine years old," said Sapna Sharma. 6Ey世界播

萨普娜·夏尔马说:“我们发现,在明尼苏达州溺水者中,几乎有一半是9岁以下的儿童,那里没有车辆。”6Ey世界播


"They were playing on the ice, tobogganing or ice skating and they just weren't able to recognise when the ice was unsafe. They may not have recognised that slushy ice or a little open patch of water could be so fatal." 6Ey世界播

“他们在冰上玩耍,滑雪橇或滑冰,他们就是不知道什么时候冰是不安全的。他们可能没有意识到,泥冰或一小块开阔的水域可能会如此致命。”6Ey世界播


Even where lake or river accidents weren't deadly, they often had life-changing results. 6Ey世界播

即使在湖泊或河流事故并不致命的地方,它们往往也会改变人们的一生。6Ey世界播


In cold water accidents where children suffered cardiac arrest, some 90% also experienced significant neurological damage - and only 27% were alive a year later. 6Ey世界播

在儿童心脏骤停的冷水事故中,大约90%的儿童也经历了严重的神经损伤-一年后只有27%的人还活着。6Ey世界播


However, some countries have managed to limit the number of drownings during winter, including Germany and Italy. 6Ey世界播

然而,一些国家已经设法限制了冬季溺水人数,包括德国和意大利。6Ey世界播


Local laws prohibit the use of snowmobiles on lakes and activities like skating are often limited until local authorities deem the ice to be safe. 6Ey世界播

当地法律禁止在湖泊上使用雪地摩托,在当地政府认为冰面安全之前,滑冰等活动往往受到限制。6Ey世界播


Education is also seen to be a key element. According to Barbara Byers from the Canadian Lifesaving Society, people just don't recognise the personal threat that a changing climate can pose. 6Ey世界播

教育也被视为一个关键因素。加拿大救生协会的芭芭拉·拜尔斯表示,人们根本没有意识到气候变化可能带来的个人威胁。6Ey世界播


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Snowmobiles are widely used on frozen lakes for transport 6Ey世界播

雪地摩托在结冰的湖泊上被广泛用于运输6Ey世界播


"People think that ice is ice but appearances can be deceiving," she told BBC News. 6Ey世界播

她告诉BBC新闻:“人们认为冰就是冰,但外表可能具有欺骗性。”6Ey世界播


"People may think it's cold out, the ice must be fine but it really is the quality of the ice or the type of ice that's really important. 6Ey世界播

“人们可能会认为外面很冷,冰层一定很好,但真正重要的是冰层的质量或冰层的类型。”6Ey世界播


"Ice now gets frozen and thawed and when that happens there's water in-between the layers of the ice. So it may look hard and frozen, but it's not." 6Ey世界播

“现在冰会被冻结和融化,当这种情况发生时,冰层之间会有水。所以它可能看起来很硬,结冰了,但事实并非如此。”6Ey世界播


Researchers say that despite efforts to educate, they expect that drowning events will likely increase in the future. 6Ey世界播

研究人员表示,尽管努力进行教育,但他们预计未来溺水事件可能会增加。6Ey世界播


They are particularly worried about this winter, as people may be spending more time outdoors due to the pandemic, with potentially fatal results. 6Ey世界播

他们尤其担心这个冬天,因为由于大流行,人们可能会花更多的时间在户外,这可能会带来致命的后果。6Ey世界播


"Everything's closed right now, and more people are spending time in nature and where they might not have done so before," said Sapna Sharma. 6Ey世界播

萨普娜·夏尔马说:“现在所有的东西都关门了,越来越多的人在大自然中度过了一段时间,在他们以前可能不会这样做的地方。”6Ey世界播


"This year, it's forecast to be a warmer, wetter winter in Canada, so in combination with more people going outside that could be that could be quite dangerous." 6Ey世界播

“据预测,今年加拿大将是一个更温暖、更潮湿的冬天,所以再加上更多的人外出,这可能是相当危险的。”6Ey世界播


The study has been published in the journal Plos One. 6Ey世界播

这项研究发表在《公共科学图书馆·综合》(Plos One)杂志上。6Ey世界播

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