从饼干画中发现阿尔茨海默氏症的人工智能

2020-10-23 07:33

The AI that spots Alzheimer's from cookie drawing 1lU世界播

从饼干画中发现阿尔茨海默氏症的人工智能。1lU世界播


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The AI analysed responses to what is happening in this picture 1lU世界播

人工智能分析了对这张图片中正在发生的事情的反应1lU世界播


A dated line drawing of two children stealing cookies behind their mother's back is being used by an artificial intelligence system to detect the onset of Alzheimer's disease. 1lU世界播

人工智能系统正在使用一张两个孩子背着母亲偷饼干的标注日期的线条图来检测阿尔茨海默病的发病时间。1lU世界播


The system uses voice samples of people describing the scene to predict whether healthy people may get the disease. 1lU世界播

该系统使用描述现场的人的声音样本来预测健康的人是否可能感染这种疾病。1lU世界播


It could predict onset seven years earlier than human doctors with 70% accuracy. 1lU世界播

它可以比人类医生提前7年预测发病,准确率为70%。1lU世界播


The UK's Alzheimer's Society said the research was encouraging. 1lU世界播

英国阿尔茨海默氏症协会表示,这项研究令人鼓舞。1lU世界播


Fiona Carragher, director of Research at the Alzheimer's Society, said: "Getting a dementia diagnosis in good time is critical to living well with the condition. 1lU世界播

阿尔茨海默氏症协会的研究主管菲奥娜·卡拉格说:“及时得到痴呆症的诊断是很好地应对这种情况的关键。1lU世界播


"Sadly, it's often a long road that delays access for people with dementia to the right treatment, support and guidance - yet existing treatments are more effective the earlier people receive them, and potential new treatments could also be more effective in the early stages or even before symptoms appear. 1lU世界播

可悲的是,这往往是一条漫长的道路,延误了痴呆症患者获得正确的治疗、支持和指导-然而,现有的治疗方法越早接受越有效,潜在的新治疗方法在早期阶段甚至在症状出现之前也可能更有效。1lU世界播


"This is an exciting further step in the use of artificial intelligence and language to get much earlier and more accurate diagnoses - though we need to see these methods tested further in larger, diverse groups of people. 1lU世界播

“这是在使用人工智能和语言来获得更早、更准确诊断方面令人兴奋的又一步-尽管我们需要看到这些方法在更大、更多样化的人群中得到进一步测试。”1lU世界播


"We desperately need more research of this kind, given Alzheimer's disease causes brain changes up to 15 years before symptoms show." 1lU世界播

“我们迫切需要更多这类研究,因为阿尔茨海默氏病在症状显现前15年才会引起大脑变化。”1lU世界播


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Alzheimer's destroys connections between nerve cells in the brain 1lU世界播

阿尔茨海默氏症破坏了大脑中神经细胞之间的联系1lU世界播


Alzheimer's damages the memory and other cognitive abilities by destroying connections between nerve cells in the brain. 1lU世界播

阿尔茨海默氏症会破坏大脑中神经细胞之间的连接,从而损害记忆和其他认知能力。1lU世界播


In the US alone, it is estimated that up to 5.5 million people are living with the disease, with some studies suggesting that it is the third leading cause of death behind heart disease and cancer. 1lU世界播

仅在美国,估计就有多达550万人患有这种疾病,一些研究表明,它是仅次于心脏病和癌症的第三大死因。1lU世界播


The AI model, developed by IBM Research and pharmaceutical giant Pfizer, uses natural language processing to analyse short excerpts of speech taken from the Cookie Theft cognitive test. The test, used for many years in the diagnosis of dementia and other cognitive illnesses, asks people to describe what they see in the picture. 1lU世界播

人工智能模型由IBM Research和制药巨头辉瑞(Pfizer)开发,使用自然语言处理来分析从Cookie Theft认知测试中提取的简短语音摘录。这项多年来一直用于诊断痴呆症和其他认知疾病的测试,要求人们描述他们在图片中看到的东西。1lU世界播


The AI spotted subtle changes to language, such as grammatical errors and different sentence structure, which indicate cognitive decline. 1lU世界播

人工智能发现了语言的细微变化,比如语法错误和不同的句子结构,这些都表明认知能力下降。1lU世界播


The samples used by IBM came from The Framingham Heart Study, a US research project into 5,000 people and their families that has been ongoing since 1948. 1lU世界播

IBM使用的样本来自弗雷明翰心脏研究,这是一个自1948年以来一直在进行的针对5000人及其家人的美国研究项目。1lU世界播


Because of the long-running nature of the study, the AI was able to analyse samples collected while people were cognitively healthy. And, if the model analysed a speech sample from one of the participants at the age of 65 and predicted that he or she would develop Alzheimer's by the age of 85, that could be checked to see how accurate it was. 1lU世界播

由于这项研究的长期性,人工智能能够分析在人们认知健康的情况下收集的样本。而且,如果该模型分析了其中一名65岁参与者的语音样本,并预测他或她在85岁时会患上阿尔茨海默氏症,那么就可以检查这一预测的准确性。1lU世界播


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The AI analyses many parameters of speech, including grammar 1lU世界播

人工智能分析语音的许多参数,包括语法1lU世界播


"The key finding is that seven years in advance of clinical diagnosis, we can say with 70% accuracy that people will go on to develop Alzheimer's," explained Ajay Royyuru, IBM's vice-president of Healthcare Research. 1lU世界播

IBM负责医疗研究的副总裁Ajay Royyuru解释说:“关键的发现是,在临床诊断之前七年,我们可以70%的准确率说,人们将继续患上阿尔茨海默氏症。”1lU世界播


Although there is currently no known cure for the disease, knowing who might develop it could help with treatments, he told the BBC. 1lU世界播

他告诉BBC,虽然目前还没有已知的治疗方法,但知道谁可能会患上这种疾病可能会对治疗有所帮助。1lU世界播


"Even if you cannot change the course of the disease you can prepare, you can manage your life better." 1lU世界播

“即使你不能改变你能准备好的病程,你也可以更好地管理你的生活。”1lU世界播


Mr Ajay acknowledged that not every patient would want to know, though. 1lU世界播

阿杰先生承认并不是每个病人都想知道。1lU世界播


"This has to be done with a strong ethical construct, individuals have to give consent to markers being used and if you chose to participate you will find out. You don't get to find out unless you give consent." 1lU世界播

“这必须通过强有力的道德建设来完成,个人必须同意所使用的标记,如果你选择参与,你会发现的。除非你同意,否则你无法找到答案。”1lU世界播


But in future he hopes that AI systems can help doctors understand the role bio-markers such voice can play in diagnosis and predictive medicine. 1lU世界播

但在未来,他希望人工智能系统能够帮助医生理解语音等生物标记在诊断和预测医学中所起的作用。1lU世界播


"We believe AI is a means of augmenting this process, it is just another indicator for a trained practitioner and it will not be AI giving the diagnosis." 1lU世界播

“我们相信人工智能是加强这一过程的一种手段,它只是训练有素的从业者的另一个指标,不会是人工智能给出诊断。”1lU世界播


The research paper is published in The Lancet eClinicalMedicine journal. 1lU世界播

这篇研究论文发表在“柳叶刀电子临床医学”杂志上。1lU世界播

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