研究标志着路易斯安那州海岸计划的重大里程碑

2021-03-07 00:23

Study marks major milestone for Louisiana coastal plan Zz7世界播

研究标志着路易斯安那州海岸计划的重大里程碑Zz7世界播


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NEW ORLEANS (AP) — A nearly $2 billion plan to divert water and sediment from the Mississippi River to rebuild land in southeastern Louisiana — considered the cornerstone of the state's efforts to protect its rapidly eroding coast — has passed a major milestone with the publication of the long-awaited Army Corps of Engineers environmental impact study. Zz7世界播

新奥尔良(美联社)-一项耗资近20亿美元的计划,将密西西比河中的水和沉积物引流到路易斯安那州东南部重建土地-被认为是该州努力保护其快速侵蚀的海岸的基石-随着期待已久的陆军工程兵团环境影响研究的发布,已经越过了一个重要的里程碑。Zz7世界播


The report issued late Thursday spells out the potential benefits of the plan projected to build thousands of acres of freshwater marshes on the western side of the Mississippi River that will help knock down storm surge in the New Orleans area to the north. But it will also have damaging effects on the state's important shrimping and oyster industries as well as dolphins and some coastal communities. Zz7世界播

星期四晚些时候发布的这份报告详细阐述了这项计划的潜在好处,该计划计划在密西西比河西岸建造数千英亩的淡水沼泽,这将有助于消除北部新奥尔良地区的风暴潮。但它也将对该州重要的捕虾和牡蛎产业以及海豚和一些沿海社区产生破坏性影响。Zz7世界播


The Mid-Barataria Sediment Diversion will essentially cut a hole into the levee around the town of Ironton, southeast of New Orleans, and channel part of the river's flow into Barataria Bay. As the water moves into the bay, sediment settles and eventually accumulates into land. It's considered the most important project of the state's $50 billion coastal protection plan that details various measures the state is taking to protect a coast that has lost 2,000 square miles (5,200 square kilometers) since 1932. Zz7世界播

巴拉塔里亚中部的泥沙改道基本上将在新奥尔良东南部的铁顿镇周围的堤坝上凿出一个洞,并将部分河流的水流引向巴拉塔里亚湾。当水流入海湾时,沉积物会沉淀下来,最终积聚成陆地。这被认为是该州500亿美元海岸保护计划中最重要的项目,该计划详细说明了该州正在采取的各种措施,以保护自1932年以来已经失去2000平方英里(5200平方公里)的海岸。Zz7世界播


“This project is a lifeline for coastal Louisiana. ... It is the shot in the arm that our coast needs right now,” said Chip Kline, who chairs the agency charged with protecting the state's coast. Zz7世界播

“这个项目是路易斯安那州沿海地区的生命线。..。这是我们的海岸现在需要的一剂强心针,“负责保护该州海岸的机构主席奇普·克莱恩(Chip Kline)说。Zz7世界播


The concept has been discussed for decades and essentially tries to recreate nature. Southeastern Louisiana is formed of sediment that washed down the Mississippi River and deposited over thousands of years. But as the river was leveed to protect surrounding communities, the sediment instead washed into the Gulf of Mexico. Zz7世界播

这个概念已经讨论了几十年,本质上是为了重现自然。路易斯安那州东南部是由冲刷密西西比河的沉积物形成的,经过数千年的沉积。但由于河流被用来保护周围的社区,沉积物反而被冲进了墨西哥湾。Zz7世界播


The loss of sediment coupled with canals dug for oil and gas development and navigation allowed saltwater to push farther and farther into areas like Barataria Bay. Zz7世界播

沉积物的流失,再加上为石油和天然气开发和航行而挖掘的运河,使得咸水可以越来越远地向巴拉塔里亚湾等地区推进。Zz7世界播


To build the diversion, the state must get permission from the Army Corps of Engineers which issues a draft environmental impact statement spelling out the potential impacts of the project and the state suggests how it will mitigate those. Zz7世界播

为了修建这条改道,该州必须获得陆军工程兵团(Army Corps Of Engineering)的许可,后者发布了一份环境影响声明草案,详细说明了该项目的潜在影响,并提出了如何缓解这些影响的建议。Zz7世界播


The money to build the diversion comes from fines BP paid after the 2009 Deepwater Horizon oil spill that sent millions of gallons into the Gulf of Mexico and killed 11 rig workers. Barataria Bay was ground zero for the oil damage. Zz7世界播

修建改道的资金来自英国石油公司(BP)在2009年深水地平线(Deepwater Horizon)漏油事件后支付的罚款。那次漏油事件导致数百万加仑石油进入墨西哥湾,并导致11名钻井工人死亡。巴拉塔里亚湾(Barataria Bay)是石油破坏的起点。Zz7世界播


The group that oversees how the oil spill fines are spent has released a report detailing the diversion's benefits and impacts and why they support going ahead with it. Zz7世界播

负责监督漏油罚款如何使用的组织发布了一份报告,详细说明了分流的好处和影响,以及他们为什么支持继续进行分流。Zz7世界播


At top capacity, the project would divert 75,000 cubic feet (2,125 cubic meters) of water per second from the Mississippi River through a 2-mile-long (3-kilometer-long) concrete channel into the bay. Gates at the river's edge would control the flow and the state would have an extensive monitoring system to measure things like salinity levels in the bay. Zz7世界播

在最大产能下,该项目将每秒从密西西比河引水7.5万立方英尺(2125立方米),通过一条2英里长(3公里长)的混凝土渠道进入海湾。河边的闸门将控制水流,该州将有一个广泛的监测系统来测量海湾的盐度水平等。Zz7世界播


A final permit could be issued as early as next year after public comments. Zz7世界播

在公众发表意见后,最终的许可证最早可能在明年发放。Zz7世界播


According to the report, the diversion could build as much as 17,300 acres (27 square miles) by 2050, although the acreage would drop in later years because of sea level rise and subsidence. The resulting land and marsh would help to knock down storm surge by as much as 1 foot (.3 meters) in the New Orleans area. Zz7世界播

根据这份报告,到2050年,改道可能会建造多达17300英亩(27平方英里)的土地,尽管由于海平面上升和下沉,未来几年的面积将会下降。由此产生的土地和沼泽将有助于将新奥尔良地区的风暴潮降低1英尺(0.3米)。Zz7世界播


The strongest opposition to the diversion has come from members of the state’s fishing industry, particularly shrimpers and oyster growers that are an integral part of the state’s culture, history and economy. They worry about the effects of adding so much freshwater to an area that’s largely saltwater right now. Zz7世界播

对改道的最强烈反对来自该州的渔业,特别是虾和牡蛎种植者,它们是该州文化、历史和经济不可或缺的一部分。他们担心在目前大部分是咸水的地区增加这么多淡水的影响。Zz7世界播


The Corps study said the change in salinity levels in the bay would have major, adverse impacts on eastern oysters and brown shrimp. Zz7世界播

兵团的研究称,海湾盐度水平的变化将对东部牡蛎和褐虾产生重大不利影响。Zz7世界播


The state is proposing to help oyster harvesters and shrimp fishermen adapt to the changes with measures such as paying for refrigeration units for shrimping boats that have to travel farther to shrimp or paying to establish more oyster seed grounds in different areas. Zz7世界播

该州正在提议采取一些措施来帮助牡蛎收割机和捕虾户适应这些变化,比如为不得不走得更远的捕虾船购买制冷设备,或者花钱在不同的地区建立更多的牡蛎种子场。Zz7世界播


Brad Robin's family opened Robin's Seafood in 1947 but have been fishing in the coastal waters even longer than that. His business now focuses exclusively on oysters, and he's a member of the state's oyster task force. He's worried that the diversion will devastate the oyster harvesting on the western side of the river the way that the extended opening of the Bonnet Carre Spillway in 2019 devastated oysters on the eastern side of the river. Zz7世界播

布拉德·罗宾(Brad Robin)的家人在1947年开设了罗宾海鲜(Robin‘s Seafood),但在沿海水域捕鱼的时间甚至比这更长。他的生意现在只专注于牡蛎,他是该州牡蛎特别工作组的成员。他担心改道会破坏河西岸的牡蛎收获,就像2019年引擎盖·卡雷溢洪道(Bonnet Carre Spillway)的延长开放摧毁了河东岸的牡蛎一样。Zz7世界播


“The question I ask all the time," he said. "Just tell us the truth: Where do we fit in?” Zz7世界播

“我一直在问的问题,”他说。“告诉我们真相:我们在哪里适合?”Zz7世界播


The report also said the diversion could reduce the number of dolphins that live in the bay by a third over two decades. The state is proposing various mitigation efforts such as expanding its network to monitor for stranded dolphins and putting money toward reducing other stresses. Zz7世界播

报告还说,改道可能会使生活在海湾中的海豚数量在20年内减少三分之一。该州正在提议各种缓解措施,比如扩大其网络,以监测搁浅的海豚,并将资金投入到减轻其他压力上。Zz7世界播


The diversion will also increase tidal flooding in many of the small fishing communities farther south along the river, including some minority and low-income communities. State mitigation efforts include raising roads, houses and infrastructure or in some cases buying out properties. Zz7世界播

改道还将增加沿河更南边的许多小渔村的潮汐洪水,包括一些少数民族和低收入社区。国家缓解措施包括修建道路、房屋和基础设施,或者在某些情况下买断房产。Zz7世界播

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