一个黑人冒着一切风险洗清自己的罪名--并揭发警察

2020-11-19 18:08

A Black Man Risks All To Clear His Name - And Expose The Police Qwl世界播

一个黑人冒着一切风险洗清自己的罪名--并揭发警察Qwl世界播


暂无Qwl世界播


ROCHESTER, New York: In a courthouse holding cell, Silvon Simmons changed from a jail jumpsuit into dress pants, a shirt and a tie. As a kid, he imagined becoming a police officer. Now a 36-year-old father, Simmons was preparing to stand trial in October 2017, facing life in prison for allegedly trying to kill a cop. Qwl世界播

纽约罗切斯特:在法院的拘留室里,西尔万·西蒙斯(Silvon Simmons)从监狱连体裤换成了连衣裤、衬衫和领带。当他还是个孩子的时候,他就幻想成为一名警察。现年36岁的西蒙斯是一名父亲,他正准备在2017年10月受审,因涉嫌试图杀害一名警察而面临终身监禁。Qwl世界播


The officer, Joseph Ferrigno, had shot Simmons three times from behind. Ferrigno, a Rochester Police patrolman, insisted that Simmons had fired first. The cop reported finding a 9mm Ruger pistol a few feet from where Simmons lay bleeding. Qwl世界播

这位名叫约瑟夫·费里尼奥(Joseph Ferrigno)的警官从背后向西蒙斯开了三枪。费里格诺是罗切斯特警察局的一名巡警,他坚称是西蒙斯先开的枪。警察报告说,在西蒙斯躺在流血的地方几英尺处发现了一把9毫米鲁格手枪。Qwl世界播


The Rochester Police Department and the police union backed up Ferrigno. One of his most outspoken supporters: the union’s boss, Locust Club President Michael Mazzeo. He said he never doubted Ferrigno’s account of what happened the night of April 1, 2016. Qwl世界播

罗切斯特警察局和警察工会支持费里尼奥。他最直言不讳的支持者之一:工会主席、蝗虫俱乐部主席迈克尔·马泽奥(Michael Mazzeo)。他说,他从未怀疑费里尼奥对2016年4月1日晚上发生的事情的描述。Qwl世界播


“That officer got shot at, and he returned fire,” Mazzeo said. Qwl世界播

“那名警官遭到枪击,他还击了,”马泽奥说。Qwl世界播


A police official said Ferrigno and other officers involved in the case are prohibited from speaking publicly. But even before testimony began in the Simmons trial, their narrative of that night emerged in police reports reviewed by Reuters. It begins the moment Ferrigno spotted a Chevrolet Impala and followed it to the driveway next to Simmons’ house. Qwl世界播

一名警官说,费里尼奥和其他参与此案的警官被禁止公开发言。但甚至在西蒙斯案的证词开始之前,他们对当晚的描述就出现在路透社(Reuters)审阅的警方报告中。故事开始于费里尼诺发现了一辆雪佛兰黑斑羚,跟着它来到了西蒙斯家旁边的车道上。Qwl世界播


Cops had been searching for an armed Black man driving an Impala. Simmons was a passenger in an Impala driven by his neighbor; both are Black. Neither, however, was the man police were seeking. Qwl世界播

警方一直在搜寻一名驾驶黑斑羚的武装黑人男子。西蒙斯是邻居驾驶的一辆黑斑羚的乘客,两辆车都是黑色的。然而,这两个人都不是警方正在寻找的人。Qwl世界播


Simmons’ DNA wasn’t found on the weapon. His prints weren’t on the gun. Cops never tested him for gunpowder residue. And there were no eyewitnesses and no videotape; police patrolling that part of town wouldn’t start wearing body cameras until months later. Qwl世界播

武器上没有发现西蒙斯的DNA。枪上没有他的指纹。警察从未测试过他的火药残留物。而且没有目击者,也没有录像带;在镇上那个地方巡逻的警察直到几个月后才开始佩戴随身相机。Qwl世界播


As he lay bleeding in his own backyard, Simmons recalled, a thought crossed his mind: If he were to die then and there, “people will never know the truth.” Qwl世界播

西蒙斯回忆说,当他躺在自家后院流血的时候,一个念头闪过他的脑海:如果他当场就死了,“人们永远不会知道真相。”Qwl世界播


What he feared seemed to be happening. Ferrigno’s version of the encounter took hold. Detectives on the case, all fellow members of the Locust Club union, dismissed Simmons’ account of that night. “No one would listen,” he recalled. “There was just one story.” Qwl世界播

他担心的事情似乎正在发生。费里格诺对这次遭遇的描述站稳了脚跟。负责此案的侦探们--蝗虫俱乐部工会的所有成员--驳斥了西蒙斯对当晚的描述。“没人愿意听,”他回忆道。“只有一个故事。”Qwl世界播


The prosecution’s case relied heavily on Ferrigno. If the jury believed him, Simmons could spend the rest of his life behind bars. He had rejected a deal to plead guilty and serve 15 years on a gun possession charge: “a huge gamble,” as public defender Elizabeth Riley put it. But Simmons wanted his life back – the boys he was raising with his girlfriend, his job and a chance to prove his innocence. Qwl世界播

检方的案件在很大程度上依赖于费里尼奥。如果陪审团相信他,西蒙斯可能会在监狱里度过余生。他拒绝了一项认罪并因持枪指控服刑15年的协议:正如公设辩护律师伊丽莎白·莱利(Elizabeth Riley)所说,这是一场“巨大的赌博”。但西蒙斯想要回他的生活--他和女朋友一起抚养的男孩,他的工作,以及一个证明自己清白的机会。Qwl世界播


Reuters reviewed thousands of pages of trial transcripts, police records and other evidence submitted in People v. Simmons. The documents reveal that Ferrigno, a white officer with almost nine years’ experience, made a series of choices that run counter to widely accepted police practices. Some of those decisions, experts in police tactics told Reuters, set the stage for Ferrigno’s bloody encounter with Simmons. Other decisions likely escalated the encounter, imperiling both men’s lives. Qwl世界播

路透社查阅了数千页的审判记录、警方记录和其他在People v.Simmons案中提交的证据。文件显示,拥有近九年工作经验的白人警官费里尼奥做出了一系列与广泛接受的警察做法背道而驰的选择。警察战术专家告诉路透社,其中一些决定为费里格诺与西蒙斯的血腥相遇埋下了伏笔。其他决定可能会使这场冲突升级,危及两人的生命。Qwl世界播


The records also indicate that shortcuts and missteps by detectives hindered the department’s criminal and internal investigations of the shooting and may have blinded the force to flaws in the case against Simmons. The documents show the defining role that the Locust Club’s contract and union members played in the investigations. And they highlight the challenge Simmons faced when he went to trial with two public defenders battling a labor brotherhood. Qwl世界播

记录还表明,侦探的捷径和失误阻碍了司法部对枪击事件的刑事和内部调查,并可能使警方对西蒙斯案件中的缺陷视而不见。这些文件显示了蝗虫俱乐部的合同和工会成员在调查中扮演的决定性角色。他们还突显了西蒙斯在与两名公设辩护人一起与劳工兄弟会作战时所面临的挑战。Qwl世界播


“Police can shoot first and then hide behind their union and cover it up,” Simmons, who earned $17.50 an hour when he was shot, told Reuters. “All across the country, the unions stand behind the police. They hire lawyers that can beat the system. The average person they arrest doesn’t have the money to do all that.” Qwl世界播

西蒙斯在接受路透社采访时表示:“警察可以先开枪,然后躲在工会后面掩盖事实。”西蒙斯中枪时的时薪为17.50美元。“全国各地的工会都支持警察。他们聘请的律师可以击败体制。他们逮捕的普通人没有足够的钱去做所有这些事情。“。Qwl世界播


In America, the cops police themselves. It’s a tradition that activists in Rochester and elsewhere have been trying to change for decades. Qwl世界播

在美国,警察自己当警察。这是罗切斯特和其他地方的积极分子几十年来一直试图改变的传统。Qwl世界播


CULTURE OF “CALLOUSNESS” Qwl世界播

“冷酷”文化。Qwl世界播


Rochester police officials declined to discuss details of the shooting or the investigation. But in a statement to Reuters, the department said interim Chief Cynthia Herriott-Sullivan would make any policy changes necessary to ensure use of force by officers is appropriate and investigated properly. “She looks forward to involving the community in this effort,” the statement said. Qwl世界播

罗切斯特警方官员拒绝讨论枪击事件或调查的细节。但在给路透社的一份声明中,该部门表示,临时局长辛西娅·赫里奥特-沙利文(Cynthia Herriott-Sullivan)将做出任何必要的政策改变,以确保警官使用武力是适当的,并得到适当的调查。声明说:“她期待着让社区参与到这项工作中来。”Qwl世界播


In the past, however, efforts to give residents more say over police conduct lost steam or were beaten back by the Locust Club, one of the oldest police unions in America. The union has used state collective bargaining laws to cement protections for officers. This year, it persuaded a judge to block the city’s powerful new civilian oversight board from compelling officer testimony and from disciplining cops for misconduct. Qwl世界播

然而,在过去,让居民在警察行为上拥有更多话语权的努力失去了动力,或者被美国历史最悠久的警察工会之一蝗虫俱乐部(Locust Club)击退。工会利用州集体谈判法巩固了对官员的保护。今年,它说服了一名法官阻止该市权力强大的新文职监督委员会提供令人信服的警官证词,并禁止对不当行为的警察进行纪律处分。Qwl世界播


The Locust Club’s power is not unique, a nationwide Reuters analysis of police union contracts, court decisions and labor board rulings found. Labor laws, employment contracts and court rulings prevent changes in the way police are investigated and disciplined without first winning union approval, Reuters found. In some cases, even changes in operational tactics are subject to labor’s consent. Qwl世界播

路透社(Reuters)对全国警察工会合同、法院裁决和劳工委员会裁决的分析发现,蝗虫俱乐部的权力并不是独一无二的。路透社发现,劳动法、雇佣合同和法院裁决阻止了警察在没有事先获得工会批准的情况下改变调查和纪律处分的方式。在某些情况下,即使是行动策略的改变也需要得到劳工的同意。Qwl世界播


Like many American cities, Rochester is again confronting questions over the conduct of its police. In March, Daniel Prude, a Black man, died in police custody. A months-long delay in releasing video of Prude’s arrest fueled charges of a cover-up and led to the resignation of the police chief. The attorney general of New York, Letitia James, has empanelled a grand jury to consider whether the officers in the case should be criminally charged. Qwl世界播

像许多美国城市一样,罗切斯特再次面临警察行为的质疑。今年3月,黑人丹尼尔·普鲁德(Daniel Prude)在警方拘留期间死亡。长达一个月的推迟发布普鲁德被捕的视频引发了掩盖事实的指控,并导致警察局长辞职。纽约州总检察长利蒂夏·詹姆斯(Letitia James)组建了一个大陪审团,以考虑是否应该对此案的警官提出刑事指控。Qwl世界播


A September report from the city’s deputy mayor about the police handling of the Prude case identified some of the same issues that Simmons faced and referred to “a culture of insularity, acceptance, and quite frankly, callousness that permeates the Rochester Police Department.” Qwl世界播

该市副市长9月份发布的一份关于警方处理普鲁德案件的报告指出了西蒙斯面临的一些相同问题,并提到“罗切斯特警察局弥漫着一种与世隔绝、接受他人的文化,坦率地说,这种文化弥漫着冷酷无情。”Qwl世界播


Frank and Sharlene Simmons say they had similar concerns in the months leading up to their son’s trial. They joined Enough is Enough, a Rochester support group for people harmed in police encounters. The group was formed in the wake of another violent incident that involved Officer Ferrigno: the 2013 arrest of Benny Warr, a one-legged man whom officers roughed up and dumped from his wheelchair at a bus stop. Qwl世界播

弗兰克和莎琳·西蒙斯(Frank And Sharlene Simmons)表示,在儿子受审前的几个月里,他们也有类似的担忧。他们加入了罗彻斯特一个为在警察遭遇中受伤的人提供支持的组织。该组织是在另一起涉及费里尼奥警官的暴力事件之后成立的:2013年,一名独腿男子本尼·沃尔(Benny Warr)被捕,警察在公交车站粗暴对待他,并将其从轮椅上扔了下来。Qwl世界播


On the night Simmons was shot in 2016, Rochester cops swarmed the neighborhood, searching for witnesses and for the bullet that Ferrigno said Simmons had fired. When officers with dogs got to a white frame house a half block north of where Simmons was shot, they surrounded a van in a driveway. By coincidence, sitting inside the van was the disabled Warr, listening to the radio with his grandson. Qwl世界播

2016年西蒙斯被枪杀的当晚,罗切斯特警察蜂拥而至,寻找目击者和费里格诺所说的西蒙斯开枪的子弹。当带着狗的警察到达西蒙斯被枪击地点以北半个街区处的一座白色框架房子时,他们在车道上包围了一辆面包车。巧合的是,坐在面包车里的是残疾的沃尔,正和他的孙子一起听收音机。Qwl世界播


Warr, 60, had been terrified of cops since the 2013 incident, said his wife, Nina. He suffered back and neck injuries in the encounter, and doctors told him he would never walk with a prosthesis again, she said. Qwl世界播

现年60岁的沃尔的妻子尼娜(Nina)说,自2013年事件以来,沃尔一直害怕警察。她说,他在这次遭遇中背部和颈部受伤,医生告诉他,他再也不会戴假肢走路了。Qwl世界播


The morning after police surrounded his van, Warr heard a news report: The officer who’d shot the man a few houses away was Ferrigno, one of the cops who had roughed up Warr. Qwl世界播

警察包围了沃尔的面包车后的第二天早上,沃尔听到了一则新闻报道:在几栋房子外开枪打死这名男子的警察是费里尼奥,他是殴打沃尔的警察之一。Qwl世界播


The Rochester Police Department cleared the officers of using excessive force against Warr, and a federal jury absolved Ferrigno of liability last year after the Warrs sued. Benny Warr never got over what happened, his wife said. He was so distraught after learning Ferrigno had shot a man on his street that she took him to the hospital for psychiatric care. Qwl世界播

罗切斯特警察局澄清了这些警官对沃尔过度使用武力的行为,去年沃尔夫妇提起诉讼后,联邦陪审团免除了费里尼奥的责任。本尼·沃尔(Benny Warr)的妻子说,本尼·沃尔从未忘记发生的事情。在得知费里尼奥在他的街道上开枪打死了一名男子后,他心烦意乱,以至于她把他带到医院接受精神治疗。Qwl世界播


Then she set out to find the family of the man Ferrigno shot. She said she wanted them to know what Ferrigno and the other officers had done to her husband. Qwl世界播

然后她出发去找费里格诺被枪杀的人的家人。她说,她想让他们知道费里尼奥和其他警官对她丈夫做了什么。Qwl世界播


Warr introduced herself to Simmons’ parents at an Enough is Enough meeting and referred them to her lawyer. The attorney, Charles Burkwit, had gathered evidence of almost two dozen misconduct complaints against Ferrigno, some alleging excessive force. Qwl世界播

沃尔在一次受够了的会议上向西蒙斯的父母作了自我介绍,并将他们介绍给了她的律师。律师查尔斯·伯克维特(Charles Burkwit)收集了近20多起针对费里尼奥的不当行为投诉的证据,其中一些指控过度使用武力。Qwl世界播


The Simmonses said they were troubled: Why had police allowed an officer with Ferrigno’s complicated history to patrol Rochester’s Lake Section? In a city with a violent crime rate twice the national average, the Lake area in 2016 had a higher number of murders, robberies and aggravated assaults than all but one other section. Qwl世界播

西蒙斯夫妇说,他们很困扰:为什么警方允许一名有着费里尼奥复杂历史的警官在罗切斯特湖区巡逻?在一个暴力犯罪率是全国平均水平两倍的城市,2016年湖区的谋杀案、抢劫案和严重袭击案的数量比其他所有地区都多,只有一个除外。Qwl世界播


Reuters was unable to review the complaints against Ferrigno because they are not public. Union leader Mazzeo said he hadn’t reviewed Ferrigno’s record either but characterized him as a “proactive” officer who was valued by his peers and by law-abiding residents in the “very, very difficult area” he patrolled. Qwl世界播

路透社无法审查针对费里尼奥的投诉,因为它们不是公开的。工会领袖马泽奥说,他也没有审查过费里尼奥的记录,但他将费里尼奥描述为一名“积极主动”的警官,在他巡逻的“非常、非常困难的地区”,受到同行和守法居民的重视。Qwl世界播


“The reality is, the officers who work the hardest areas … and are doing their jobs out there are going to have complaints against them,” Mazzeo said. Qwl世界播

“现实情况是,在最艰苦的地区工作的警官…。在那里做好本职工作的人会被投诉。“Mazzeo说。Qwl世界播


“ALL SET” Qwl世界播

“都准备好了”Qwl世界播


Nearly five months passed before internal investigators questioned Ferrigno to examine whether his actions violated department policies. On August 23, 2016, two sergeants from the department’s Professional Standards Section, which reviews officer conduct, interviewed Ferrigno. Both sergeants were fellow Locust Club members. The session lasted about 50 minutes. Qwl世界播

近五个月后,内部调查人员询问费里尼奥,检查他的行为是否违反了部门政策。2016年8月23日,该部门负责审查军官行为的职业标准科的两名警长采访了费里尼奥。两位中士都是蝗虫俱乐部的成员。会议持续了大约50分钟。Qwl世界播


The Locust Club contract gives officers the right to have a union representative present during questioning and requires that interviews take place “at a reasonable hour” during daylight. Officers are entitled to all past reports they’ve submitted on an incident; details of the nature of the investigation; and the names and ranks of all involved – information almost never provided to other potential subjects of police scrutiny. Qwl世界播

蝗虫俱乐部的合同赋予警官在审问期间有工会代表在场的权利,并要求面试在白天“合理的时间”进行。警察有权获得他们过去提交的关于一起事件的所有报告;调查性质的细节;以及所有涉案人员的姓名和级别-这些信息几乎从未提供给警方审查的其他潜在对象。Qwl世界播


Almost all large cities that have signed contracts with police unions since 2016 afford officers one or more similar rights, Reuters found. Qwl世界播

路透社发现,自2016年以来,几乎所有与警察工会签订合同的大城市都向警察提供了一项或多项类似的权利。Qwl世界播


Ferrigno told the investigators that after roll call the night of the shooting, he talked to Officer Sam Giancursio about a report Giancursio had taken a few days earlier: A woman reported being threatened by a Black man with a gun. The investigators asked Ferrigno what information he had on the suspect’s car. It was, he replied, “like a silver grayish Chevy Impala.” Qwl世界播

费里格诺告诉调查人员,枪击当晚点名后,他与警官萨姆·詹库西奥(Sam Giancursio)讨论了詹库西奥几天前的一份报告:一名女子报告受到一名黑人男子持枪威胁。调查人员问费里尼奥,他有什么关于嫌疑人汽车的信息。他回答说,“就像一辆银灰色的雪佛兰黑斑羚。”Qwl世界播


Ferrigno told them he later spotted a silver Impala and followed it a few blocks until the driver backed into a residential driveway. Qwl世界播

费里格诺告诉他们,他后来发现了一辆银色的黑斑羚,沿着它行驶了几个街区,直到司机倒车进入一条住宅车道。Qwl世界播


He said he pulled in front of the driveway with his cruiser and turned its spotlight on the Impala. “Based on what I already knew, wanted guy, gun in the vehicle, I drew my weapon and I commanded both occupants to stay in the vehicle, stay in the car, as I’m walking up to the car,” Ferrigno said. Qwl世界播

他说,他把巡洋舰停在车道前,把聚光灯对准了黑斑羚。费里格诺说:“根据我已经知道的情况,通缉的人和枪都在车里,我拔出武器,命令两名乘客待在车里,待在车里,当我走向车时。”Qwl世界播


Simmons, who was in the passenger seat of his neighbor’s car, told Reuters he heard no such command and was blinded by the light. Unaware that the gun-wielding man charging toward him was a cop, he ran, hoping to get inside his house, he said. Qwl世界播

西蒙斯当时坐在邻居汽车的副驾驶座位上,他告诉路透社,他没有听到这样的命令,被光线弄瞎了。他说,他没有意识到向他冲过来的持枪男子是一名警察,就跑了起来,希望能进入自己的房子。Qwl世界播


Ferrigno told the sergeants that he chased Simmons toward the backyard, saw a flash and heard a bang that he believed was gunfire. He responded with four shots. Three hit Simmons. Qwl世界播

费里尼奥告诉中士,他追赶西蒙斯到后院,看到一道闪光,并听到一声巨响,他认为这是枪声。他开了四枪作为回应。三个人击中了西蒙斯。Qwl世界播


Almost all of the sergeants’ questions focused on this final exchange – the last few seconds of an encounter that had begun several minutes earlier. Qwl世界播

几乎所有中士的问题都集中在这场最后的交锋上--几分钟前开始的一场交锋的最后几秒钟。Qwl世界播


“Why didn’t you need to fire more than four times?” Sergeant Hoang Kavanaugh asked. Qwl世界播

“你为什么不需要开四枪以上?”黄卡瓦诺中士问道。Qwl世界播


“I felt that that was reasonable to stop the threat at that time,” Ferrigno replied. Qwl世界播

费里尼奥回答说:“我觉得当时阻止威胁是合理的。”Qwl世界播


Later, Kavanaugh asked: “Just once again, who shot first?” Qwl世界播

后来,卡瓦诺问道:“再问一次,谁先开枪?”Qwl世界播


“He shot first,” Ferrigno said. Qwl世界播

费里格诺说:“他先开枪了。”Qwl世界播


Kavanaugh followed up: “You’re allowed to defend yourself, correct?” Qwl世界播

卡瓦诺接着说:“你被允许为自己辩护,对吗?”Qwl世界播


“Correct.” Qwl世界播

“正确。”Qwl世界播


“I’m all set,” Kavanaugh concluded. Qwl世界播

“我都准备好了,”卡瓦诺总结道。Qwl世界播


Part of the inquiry consisted of Ferrigno identifying 16 crime scene photographs. The transcript shows most of the questions were more elementary than probing. Qwl世界播

调查的一部分包括费里格诺确认了16张犯罪现场照片。文字记录显示,大多数问题都是基础问题,而不是探究问题。Qwl世界播


“And, again, rather slowly because I realize that this is going to bring some emotions. So start off with picture No. 1,” Sergeant Michael Cotsworth instructed. Qwl世界播

“而且,再说一遍,相当缓慢,因为我意识到这会带来一些情绪。所以从第一张照片开始吧,“迈克尔·科兹沃斯中士指示道。Qwl世界播


“Picture No. 1 is the suspect laying on his back in the dark backyard,” Ferrigno replied. Qwl世界播

费里格诺回答说:“第一张照片是嫌疑犯仰面躺在黑暗的后院。”Qwl世界播


“And in that picture,” Cotsworth asked, “is he laying face down or face up?” Qwl世界播

“在那张照片里,”科兹沃斯问道,“他是脸朝下还是脸朝上躺着?”Qwl世界播


“Face up,” Ferrigno answered. Qwl世界播

“脸朝上,”费里格诺回答说。Qwl世界播


Mazzeo, the union chief, said some of the questions that sound basic may be the investigators “clarifying” their understanding of the officer’s account. Qwl世界播

工会主席马泽奥(Mazzeo)表示,一些听起来很基本的问题可能是调查人员“澄清”了他们对这名官员的说法的理解。Qwl世界播


The internal investigators “do a good job,” he said. “They’re in a difficult situation. They’re doing a job that has to be done, and it has to be done correctly in order for the integrity of our department.” Qwl世界播

他说,内部调查人员“做得很好”。他说:“他们的处境很困难。他们正在做一项必须完成的工作,为了我们部门的完整性,必须正确地完成这项工作。“。Qwl世界播


“IT DOESN’T LOOK GOOD” Qwl世界播

“看起来不太好”Qwl世界播


Police who investigate their own are hindered by basic human nature, inherent conflicts of interest and, in many cities, far-reaching union contracts, policing experts say. Qwl世界播

警务专家表示,调查自己的警察受到基本人性、固有利益冲突以及在许多城市影响深远的工会合同的阻碍。Qwl世界播


“I don’t care who you are, it’s a natural human reaction to give a coworker the benefit of the doubt,” said Robert J. Duffy, a former beat cop who rose through the ranks to serve as chief of the Rochester Police Department from 1998 to 2005. Qwl世界播

前巡警罗伯特·J·达菲(Robert J.Duffy)说,“我不在乎你是谁,对同事持怀疑态度是人类的自然反应。”达菲曾是一名巡警,从1998年到2005年担任罗切斯特警察局局长。Qwl世界播


Even when investigations are done well and police are in the right, “the optics alone are problematic,” said Duffy, who later served as Rochester’s mayor and New York’s lieutenant governor. “From the outside, it doesn’t look good.” Qwl世界播

后来担任罗切斯特市市长和纽约州副州长的达菲说,即使调查做得很好,警方也是对的,“光是光学系统就有问题。”“从表面上看,情况并不乐观。”Qwl世界播


Several experts in police tactics told Reuters that by focusing on the climax of the encounter that night, the gunfire, Ferrigno’s examiners failed to explore a series of red flags that his account should have raised: Qwl世界播

几位警察战术专家告诉路透社,通过关注当晚遭遇的高潮-枪声,费里尼诺的审查员未能探索出他的描述本应引起的一系列危险信号:Qwl世界播


Why hadn’t Ferrigno or Giancursio alerted dispatch they were trailing a possible gunman? Why had they limited their communications with each other to a private radio channel that isn’t recorded? Why hadn’t either officer run a check of the Impala’s plates? And why did Ferrigno chase the passenger when he believed that the wanted gunman was the driver? Qwl世界播

为什么费里格诺或吉安库西奥没有通知调度员他们在跟踪一个可能的枪手?为什么他们要把彼此的交流限制在一个没有录制的私人无线电频道上?为什么两个警官都不检查黑斑羚的车牌?为什么费里尼诺认为被通缉的枪手就是司机的时候,还要追赶乘客呢?Qwl世界播


Each of those decisions was a missed opportunity to avoid the night’s bloody ending, said Marq Claxton, a retired New York Police Department detective who runs the Black Law Enforcement Alliance, a group that advocates for civil rights. Qwl世界播

纽约警察局退休侦探马克·克莱克斯顿(Marq Claxton)说,所有这些决定都错失了避免当晚血腥结局的机会。他领导着倡导民权的组织黑人执法联盟(Black Law Execution Alliance)。Qwl世界播


“The jeopardy was officer-created,” Claxton said. “The deadly force was inevitable. Why? Because he set the wheels in motion.” Qwl世界播

克莱克斯顿说:“危险是官员造成的。”他说:“致命的力量是不可避免的。为什么?因为他启动了轮子。“。Qwl世界播


Another critical error by Ferrigno: pulling across the driveway, opening his door in front of the Impala and stepping into an unprotected field of fire. Cops are typically trained to avoid such exposure, what’s known as a “fatal funnel,” said Michael Leonesio, a former training officer for the Oakland Police Department who testifies in court as an expert on police tactics. Qwl世界播

费里尼奥的另一个重大错误是:开车穿过车道,在黑斑羚前面打开车门,走进了一个没有保护的火场。奥克兰警察局前培训官员迈克尔·利奥尼西奥(Michael Leonesio)以警察战术专家的身份在法庭上作证,他说,警察通常接受的训练是避免这种暴露,也就是所谓的“致命漏斗”。Qwl世界播


“That’s one of the places where officers get killed,” Leonesio said. “You have no cover, no concealment, no surprise. You pull up in front and you pop your door open. The bad guy is going to shoot you.” Qwl世界播

利奥尼西奥说:“那是警察遇害的地方之一。”“你没有掩护,没有掩饰,没有惊喜。你把车停在前面,然后把门打开。坏人会开枪打死你的。“。Qwl世界播


In one of the few times Rochester investigators asked about the events leading up to the shooting, Ferrigno was offered this question: “What were the chances of having two silver gray Impalas that have police type body styles driving around in the same neighborhood with guns in it?” Sergeant Kavanaugh asked. “What are the odds of that, do you think?” Qwl世界播

在罗切斯特调查人员询问导致枪击事件的为数不多的几次中,有一次费里尼奥被问到这样一个问题:“有两只银灰色黑斑羚在同一街区驾车,身上带着枪,警用体型的可能性有多大?”卡瓦诺中士问道。“你认为这种可能性有多大?”Qwl世界播


“Very, very rare,” Ferrigno replied. Qwl世界播

“非常非常罕见,”费里尼奥回答说。Qwl世界播


Ferrigno had little basis for several of his assumptions. He had no way of knowing when he spotted the car whether anyone inside had a gun. His guess about who was in the car was wrong. As for the prevalence of that kind of car: In 2016, about a thousand Chevrolet Impalas were registered by residents living in that part of town, according to data provided to Reuters by Hedges & Company, an automotive market research firm. Qwl世界播

费里尼奥的几个假设几乎没有根据。当他发现这辆车时,他无法知道车内是否有人有枪。他对谁在车里的猜测是错误的。至于这类汽车的普及率:根据汽车市场研究公司赫奇斯公司(Hedge&Company)向路透社(Reuters)提供的数据,2016年,居住在该地区的居民登记了大约1000辆雪佛兰黑斑羚(Chevrolet Impala)。Qwl世界播


A week later, Rochester police located the Impala they had sought the night Simmons was shot. It wasn’t silver or grayish. It was gold. Qwl世界播

一周后,罗切斯特警方找到了西蒙斯被枪杀当晚他们寻找的黑斑羚。它不是银色的,也不是灰色的。那是金子。Qwl世界播


Ferrigno later testified that he was “cleared” by the department’s review. An advisory panel of three civilians reviewed the internal investigation and concurred, the department told Reuters. Qwl世界播

费里尼奥后来作证说,该部门的审查证明他是“清白的”。国防部告诉路透社,一个由三名平民组成的顾问小组审查了内部调查,并表示同意。Qwl世界播


He was also honored. Top brass named him one of the department’s officers of the month for his actions that April. Qwl世界播

他也获得了荣誉。由于他在那年4月的所作所为,高层官员将他评为该部门本月最佳官员之一。Qwl世界播


A CASE UNFOLDS Qwl世界播

一个案子展开了。Qwl世界播


Very little information about the department’s internal investigation or the officers’ conduct leading up to the confrontation was presented at the Simmons trial. The focus was on whether Simmons shot at Ferrigno. Qwl世界播

在西蒙斯的审判中,关于该部门的内部调查或导致对峙的警官行为的信息很少。焦点是西蒙斯是否向费里尼奥开枪。Qwl世界播


When testimony began October 10, 2017, Simmons had been in custody 18 months. The prosecution’s lead witnesses were Ferrigno and Giancursio. Qwl世界播

2017年10月10日开始作证时,西蒙斯已经被拘留了18个月。检方的主要证人是费里格诺和詹库西奥。Qwl世界播


Ferrigno acknowledged that he never actually saw a gun in his target’s hand. After chasing Simmons up the driveway and into the darkness of a moonless night, he said he lost sight of him. Then he heard “a loud bang … like a gun going off.” Then: “a muzzle flash, or what looked to me like fire come from where his hand would be.” Qwl世界播

费里尼奥承认,他从未真正看到目标手里拿着枪。在追赶西蒙斯上车道,进入一个没有月亮的夜晚的黑暗中后,他说他看不到西蒙斯了。然后他听到“一声巨响…”就像一把枪走火了。“。然后:“枪口闪光,或者在我看来像是火的东西,是从他的手应该在哪里冒出来的。”Qwl世界播


“I just saw his figure light up” about 10 feet away, Ferrigno testified. He said he “returned fire.” Qwl世界播

费里尼诺作证说,“我只是看到他的身影在大约10英尺外亮了起来。”他说他“还击了”。Qwl世界播


In a police report and in testimony before a grand jury, Giancursio never mentioned seeing a muzzle flash. But during the trial, he told jurors that he saw a flash of light and heard the “whiz” of a bullet pass by him. (He did not respond to interview requests from Reuters.) Qwl世界播

在一份警方报告和大陪审团的证词中,詹库西奥从未提到看到枪口闪光。但在庭审期间,他告诉陪审员,他看到了一道闪光,听到了子弹从他身边呼啸而过的声音。(他没有回应路透社的采访请求。)。Qwl世界播


In all, prosecutors called 28 witnesses, the defense two. Simmons chose not to testify. The case went to the jury 10 days later, on October 20, 2017. Qwl世界播

检察官总共传唤了28名证人,辩方传唤了两名证人。西蒙斯选择不作证。10天后,也就是2017年10月20日,该案提交陪审团审理。Qwl世界播


Of the 12 jurors, the forewoman was Hispanic, three jurors were Black and eight were white. During a week of deliberations, they asked for an easel, a flip chart and markers, a chance to re-examine exhibits such as the Ruger and readbacks of chunks of testimony. Qwl世界播

在12名陪审员中,女陪审员是西班牙裔,3名陪审员是黑人,8名是白人。在为期一周的审议中,他们要求提供画架、活动挂图和记号笔,有机会重新审查鲁格画廊(Ruger)等展品,并重新朗读大量证词。Qwl世界播


One was the testimony of a 52-year-old woman who lived directly across the street from the driveway that Ferrigno’s cruiser blocked. Dawn Darragh was one of the two people called by the defense. Simmons’ lawyer Riley referred to Darragh in her closing argument as “the lady who sits home all day and every time … she hears something, she gets up. She looks out. Every neighborhood has one.” Qwl世界播

其中之一是一名52岁妇女的证词,她住在费里格诺的巡洋舰堵住的车道正对面。道恩·达罗是辩方传唤的两人之一。西蒙斯的律师莱利在结案陈词中称达拉为“整天坐在家里的女士,每次…。她听到什么,就站起来。她向外看。每个社区都有一个。“。Qwl世界播


Darragh testified that bright lights drew her to her window. She saw a single officer jump out of a police car, gun drawn, and chase a man into the darkness. Then, she heard four gunshots – “pop-pop, pop-pop” – before a second officer pulled up in a separate squad car, patrol lights flashing. Qwl世界播

达拉作证说,明亮的灯光把她吸引到了窗前。她看到一名警察从一辆警车里跳出来,拔出枪,追赶一名男子进入黑暗中。然后,她听到了四声枪响--“砰,砰”--然后第二名警官开着另一辆警车停了下来,巡逻灯在闪烁。Qwl世界播


Her testimony conflicted with the accounts of both officers. She heard four gunshots – the number Ferrigno alone fired. And, if the shooting happened before Giancursio arrived, as she said, the officer could not have seen a muzzle flash or heard a bullet “whiz” past. Qwl世界播

她的证词与两名警官的说法相矛盾。她听到了四声枪响--就是费里格诺一个人开的枪。而且,如果枪击发生在詹库西奥到达之前,正如她所说,这名警官不可能看到枪口闪光,也不会听到子弹“呼啸”而过。Qwl世界播


“PER THE CUSTOMER’S INSTRUCTION” Qwl世界播

“按照顾客的指示”Qwl世界播


Jurors also sought “the testimonies regarding gunshot residue in relation to defendant and clothes.” Qwl世界播

陪审员们还寻求“关于与被告和衣物有关的枪击残留物的证词”。Qwl世界播


Prosecution witness Eric Freemesser, a forensic examiner at the Monroe County Crime Lab, testified that his technicians regularly test clothing for gunpowder residue. Simmons had urged police to test his hands and clothes for residue. Qwl世界播

检方证人埃里克·弗里梅瑟(Eric Freemesser)是门罗县犯罪实验室的法医,他作证说,他的技术人员经常检测衣服上的火药残留物。西蒙斯曾敦促警方对他的手和衣服进行残留物检测。Qwl世界播


Public defender Riley cross-examined Freemesser: “If he was holding a gun and fired it, could you have tested the arm of his sweatshirt to see whether or not the arm of his sweatshirt picked up any gunpowder residue?” Qwl世界播

公设辩护律师莱利盘问弗里梅瑟:“如果他拿着枪开枪,你能不能检测一下他运动衫的手臂,看看他的运动衫手臂上有没有发现火药残留物?”Qwl世界播


“I could’ve tested that, yes,” Freemesser answered. Qwl世界播

弗里梅瑟回答说:“是的,我可以测试一下。”Qwl世界播


“But that was not done?” Riley asked. Qwl世界播

“但那不是真的吗?”莱利问道。Qwl世界播


“No, it was not,” Freemesser said. Qwl世界播

“不,不是这样的,”弗里梅瑟说。Qwl世界播


“And was not requested of you?” Qwl世界播

“没有人要求您这么做吗?”Qwl世界播


“Correct,” Freemesser answered. Qwl世界播

“正确,”弗里梅瑟回答说。Qwl世界播


Although the magazine of the Ruger cops said they found at the scene was empty, Freemesser pointed out something odd: An empty casing remained in its chamber. When the pistol is fired, a shell casing should pop out and fall to the ground. Freemesser explained that he tested the Ruger repeatedly in the crime lab. It was in good working condition. If it had been fired that night, why was an empty casing still inside? Qwl世界播

尽管鲁格警察的杂志说他们在现场发现的是空的,但Freemesser指出了一些奇怪的事情:弹壳里还留着一个空的弹壳。当手枪鸣枪时,一个弹壳应该会弹出来并落到地上。Freemesser解释说,他在犯罪实验室反复测试了鲁格。它处于良好的工作状态。如果是当晚发射的,为什么里面还有一个空弹壳?Qwl世界播


Perhaps the most complicated testimony jurors reviewed came from a customer support engineer for a Silicon Valley-based company paid about $130,000 a year by the Rochester Police Department. Qwl世界播

陪审员审查的最复杂的证词可能来自一名硅谷公司的客户支持工程师,罗切斯特警察局每年支付约13万美元。Qwl世界播


The company, ShotSpotter, uses audio sensors positioned around the city to try to identify and pinpoint the location of gunfire. It’s supposed to help police and paramedics improve response times. But prosecutors also have used it as they did in the Simmons trial: as evidence of the time, number and location of shots fired. Qwl世界播

这家名为ShotSpotter的公司使用遍布全市的音频传感器,试图识别并精确定位枪击地点。这是为了帮助警察和医护人员缩短反应时间。但检察官也使用了它,就像他们在西蒙斯案中所做的那样:作为开枪的时间、数量和地点的证据。Qwl世界播


Initially, according to company records and trial testimony reviewed by Reuters, ShotSpotter told Rochester police that it identified the sounds that night as coming from a helicopter, not a gun. Then, after Rochester police told ShotSpotter the department was investigating an officer-involved shooting, the contractor reclassified the sounds as three gunshots, “per the customer’s instruction.” Qwl世界播

最初,根据路透社查阅的公司记录和庭审证词,ShotSpotter告诉罗切斯特警方,他们确认当晚的声音来自直升机,而不是枪支。然后,在罗切斯特警方告诉ShotSpotter,该部门正在调查一起涉及警官的枪击事件后,承包商将声音重新归类为三声枪响,“按照客户的指示”。Qwl世界播


After another communique from Rochester police, ShotSpotter analyzed its logs again. This time, ShotSpotter concluded that its sensors picked up four gunshots, all near Simmons’ house. Qwl世界播

在罗切斯特警方发布另一份公报后,ShotSpotter再次分析了其日志。这一次,ShotSpotter得出结论,它的传感器探测到四声枪响,都在西蒙斯的房子附近。Qwl世界播


Ferrigno had himself fired four times, which fit the updated ShotSpotter analysis. But what of the shot that Ferrigno insisted Simmons fired? Qwl世界播

费里尼奥自己开了四枪,这符合最新的ShotSpotter分析。但是费里格诺坚持要西蒙斯开的那一枪又是怎么回事呢?Qwl世界播


Rochester police requested another audio analysis from the contractor, court records show. The ShotSpotter report was revised once more. This time, a customer support engineer testified, sensors identified five shots – a finding that now conformed with Ferrigno’s version of events. Qwl世界播

法庭记录显示,罗切斯特警方要求承包商进行另一次音频分析。ShotSpotter的报告再次被修订。这一次,一位客户支持工程师证实,传感器识别出了五次射击--这一发现现在与费里格诺对事件的描述一致。Qwl世界播


Simmons’ defense team had sought the original recordings and other ShotSpotter records. But the company “refused to honor the defense subpoena,” Riley disclosed in a motion. If the defense wanted the information, it would have to pay more than $10,000, court records show, “a cost that was well outside the budget of the Monroe County Public Defender’s Office.” Qwl世界播

西蒙斯的辩护团队曾寻求原始录音和其他ShotSpotter唱片。但莱利在一份动议中透露,该公司“拒绝履行辩方传票”。法庭记录显示,如果辩方想要这些信息,就必须支付1万多美元,“这笔费用远远超出了门罗县公设辩护人办公室的预算。”Qwl世界播


ShotSpotter spokeswoman Liz Einbinder said the company would not answer questions about the case because of pending litigation. Qwl世界播

ShotSpotter发言人利兹·艾因宾德(Liz Einbinder)表示,由于诉讼悬而未决,公司不会回答有关此案的问题。Qwl世界播


To Riley, the company’s unwillingness to supply the information was yet another example of how unfairly her client had been treated. His pleas from a hospital bed to have his clothes and hands tested for gunpowder were disregarded. And as she told jurors in her closing argument, the internal investigation that Ferrigno said “cleared” him of wrongdoing was nothing more than “cops policing cops.” Qwl世界播

对莱利来说,该公司不愿提供信息是她的客户受到不公平对待的又一例证。他在医院病床上请求对他的衣服和双手进行火药检测,但他没有理睬。正如她在结案陈词中告诉陪审员的那样,费里格诺所说的内部调查无非是“警察监督警察”。Qwl世界播


“Think about whether or not that is a fair and impartial body,” Riley asked the jurors, “and whether or not it’s relevant at all that he was cleared there.” Qwl世界播

“想想这是不是一个公平公正的机构,”莱利问陪审员,“他在那里被洗清罪名是否有任何意义。”Qwl世界播


Late in the afternoon of October 26, jurors sent a note to the judge: They had reached a verdict. At the defense table, Simmons stiffened and prayed silently: God, don’t let me go to jail for the rest of my life for something I didn’t do. Qwl世界播

10月26日下午晚些时候,陪审员给法官发了一张纸条:他们已经做出了裁决。在辩护席上,西蒙斯僵硬地默默祈祷:上帝,不要让我因为我没有做过的事而坐牢。Qwl世界播


NEXT — Chapter Three: As Simmons learns his fate, Rochester pushes for greater control of its police force Qwl世界播

下一章-第三章:随着西蒙斯得知自己的命运,罗切斯特推动加强对警察部队的控制Qwl世界播

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