鲍里斯会对英国征税致死吗?

2020-11-19 08:04

Will Boris Tax Britain to Death? pQN世界播

鲍里斯会对英国征税致死吗?pQN世界播


暂无pQN世界播

British Prime Minister Boris Johnson during a media briefing on coronavirus in London, Nov. 9. pQN世界播

11月9日,英国首相鲍里斯·约翰逊在伦敦举行的关于冠状病毒的新闻发布会上pQN世界播


If you thought the coronavirus lockdowns were bad for economies, wait until you see how governments pay for their relief spending. The United Kingdom is offering an early glimpse, and the results aren’t pretty. pQN世界播

如果你认为冠状病毒封锁对经济不利,那就等着看看政府是如何支付救济金的吧。英国提供了一个初步的机会,但结果并不乐观。pQN世界播


A major debate about tax policy is breaking out as Prime Minister Boris Johnson and Chancellor Rishi Sunak reckon with the 20%-of-GDP hole that pandemic relief has blown in the budget. No responsible government can long ignore a deficit of that magnitude, but a more realistic government would focus on growing its way out. This would involve ending the draconian and ineffective national lockdown, and then using strategic tax and regulatory reforms to stimulate investment and job creation. pQN世界播

随着英国首相鲍里斯·约翰逊(Boris Johnson)和总理里希·苏纳克(Rishi Sunak)考虑到疫情救援在预算中造成的占GDP 20%的缺口,一场关于税收政策的重大辩论正在爆发。任何负责任的政府都不能长期忽视如此庞大的赤字,但一个更现实的政府会专注于增长自己的出路。这将包括结束严厉且无效的国家封锁,然后利用战略性税收和监管改革来刺激投资和创造就业。pQN世界播


Mr. Sunak instead is looking at raising taxes. One proposal in a report from the government’s Office of Tax Simplification (OTS) would raise capital-gains tax rates nearer to the rates on personal income. The target supposedly is carried interest in the private-equity and hedge-fund industries, where returns from investments are taxed at a capital-gains rate of 28% rather than the 45% income-tax rate for highly paid firm partners. pQN世界播

相反,苏纳克正在考虑增税。在政府税务简化办公室(OTS)的一份报告中,有一项提议是将资本利得税税率提高到更接近个人所得税的水平。目标应该是私募股权和对冲基金行业的附带权益,这些行业的投资回报按28%的资本利得税征税,而不是高薪公司合伙人45%的所得税税率。pQN世界播


Private-equity firms make an inviting political target, but the media focus on carried interest obscures all the other forms of capital gain on which the OTS suggests harmonizing tax rates with the income tax. That includes the equity that entrepreneurs build up in small businesses. Anyone who thinks the U.K. would prosper by adopting the highest capital-gains tax rate in the developed world—and by doing so right after Brexit—has been in lockdown too long. pQN世界播

私募股权公司是一个诱人的政治目标,但媒体对附带权益的关注掩盖了OTS建议将税率与所得税协调一致的所有其他形式的资本收益。这包括企业家在小企业中积累的股权。任何认为英国将通过采用发达国家中最高的资本利得税来实现繁荣的人--而且是在英国脱欧后立即这么做的--已经被封锁了太长时间。pQN世界播


Meanwhile, the center-left Resolution Foundation is giving Mr. Sunak bad ideas. One is taxing the “excess” profits arising from the pandemic, such as those earned by supermarkets and online retailers. pQN世界播

与此同时,中间偏左的决议基金会(Resolution Foundation)给孙奈克带来了糟糕的想法。一种是对疫情产生的“超额”利润征税,比如超市和在线零售商赚取的利润。pQN世界播


It also wants an income-tax hike up and down the income distribution—including a freeze on the standard exemption and current brackets so that inflation lifts more middle-income taxpayers into higher tax rates. The think tank is right that a threshold freeze would be easier to sneak past voters than an outright tax increase, which is why there’s a risk the government could embrace this approach. pQN世界播

它还希望在收入分配的上下上调所得税-包括冻结标准免税和当前税级,以便通胀将更多的中等收入纳税人推高税率。智库认为冻结门槛比直接增税更容易让选民通过,这是正确的,这就是为什么政府可能会接受这种方法的原因。pQN世界播


Some people see the danger. The center-right Centre for Policy Studies and the U.S.-based Tax Foundation recently released their tax plan for Britain, in which they focus more on business investment and economic growth than higher taxes. Their ideas, such as rationalizing property taxes for businesses and implementing 100% expensing for capital expenditure, are Britain’s best hope of boosting revenue by stimulating investment and hiring. Alas, that’s not the mood Britain’s politicians are in at the moment. pQN世界播

有些人看到了其中的危险。中右翼政策研究中心(Centre For Policy Studies)和总部设在美国的税务基金会(Tax Foundation)最近公布了他们对英国的税收计划,其中他们更关注商业投资和经济增长,而不是更高的税收。他们的想法,比如理顺企业财产税,对资本支出实行100%的支出,是英国通过刺激投资和招聘来增加收入的最大希望。唉,这不是英国政客目前的心情。pQN世界播


The conspicuous feature of these revenue raisers is that they lean heavily on the middle class. Yes, even the capital-gains proposals. The kerfuffle over private-equity carried interest obscures how little revenue is at stake—around 420 million a year, if no investors decamp from the U.K. If they do, the tax will raise less. Mr. Sunak has spent hundreds of billions of pounds on pandemic relief. pQN世界播

这些创收人士的显著特点是,他们严重依赖中产阶级。是的,即使是资本利得提案也是如此。围绕私募股权附带权益的混乱掩盖了收入的微乎其微--如果没有投资者撤离英国,每年的收入约为4.2亿英镑。如果投资者撤离英国,税收将会减少。苏纳克已经花费了数千亿英镑用于疫情救助。pQN世界播


The OTS report also suggests such anti-middle-class proposals as reducing exemptions for the capital gains that arise when an entrepreneur starts a successful small business. And the report suggests reducing the tax-exempt threshold for gains to as low as 2,000 from the current 12,300. This would ensnare thousands of middle-class taxpayers, and it’s where the real money is in a capital-gains tax heist because these taxpayers are less mobile. pQN世界播

OTS的报告还提出了一些反中产阶级的建议,比如减少创业者创办一家成功的小企业时产生的资本利得的免税。报告建议将免税门槛从目前的12,300 GB降至2000 GB。这将使数以千计的中产阶级纳税人陷入困境,而这正是资本利得税抢劫案中真正的钱所在,因为这些纳税人的流动性较差。pQN世界播


The political left is at least honest that there isn’t enough revenue to be raised from one-off levies on big companies or green taxes to fill the fiscal chasm the pandemic has opened. The Resolution Foundation notes the main impact of these proposals is political—they make the accompanying middle-class tax hikes more palatable. pQN世界播

政治左翼至少是诚实的,没有足够的收入可以从对大公司的一次性征税或绿色税收中筹集,来填补疫情造成的财政鸿沟。决议基金会指出,这些提案的主要影响是政治上的--它们让随之而来的中产阶级增税更容易让人接受。pQN世界播


That makes Britain’s tax debate very similar to what’s emerging in the U.S., especially as progressives claim that taxing the rich, or fossil fuels, or something else will be enough to pay the government’s bills. They won’t come close, and their real point is to disguise the hit on the middle class. America, you’ve been warned. pQN世界播

这使得英国的税收辩论与美国正在出现的情况非常相似,特别是在进步人士声称向富人或化石燃料或其他东西征税足以支付政府账单的情况下。他们不会接近,他们的真正目的是掩盖对中产阶级的打击。美国,你们已经被警告过了。pQN世界播

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