洛杉矶一家购物中心在激烈的地方所有权辩论中陷入混乱

2020-11-19 08:01

A Los Angeles Mall Gets Snarled in Charged Debate Over Local Ownership yAP世界播

洛杉矶一家购物中心在激烈的地方所有权辩论中陷入混乱yAP世界播


The once-grand Baldwin Hills Crenshaw Plaza mall in Los Angeles seemed like a prime target for investors. That was before it got caught up in a combustible debate over local ownership, race and economic development. yAP世界播

洛杉矶曾经宏伟的鲍德温山克伦肖广场购物中心(Baldwin Hills Crenshaw Plaza)似乎是投资者的首要目标。那是在它卷入一场关于地方所有权、种族和经济发展的激烈辩论之前。yAP世界播


The surrounding neighborhoods offered a potential redevelopment gold mine, including one of the nation’s largest concentrations of affluent and middle-class Black households. In late April, private-equity company CIM Group agreed to pay around $130 million for the property, which fronts on West Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard. yAP世界播

周边社区提供了一个潜在的再开发金矿,包括美国最大的富裕和中产阶级黑人家庭聚集地之一。4月下旬,私募股权公司CIM Group同意斥资约1.3亿美元买下这处位于西马丁·路德·金(West Martin Luther King Jr.)对面的房产。林荫大道。yAP世界播


A month later, the killing of George Floyd sparked demonstrations across the U.S. and energized opponents of the sale. Local activists claimed the deal would displace the mall’s Black-owned stores and lead to higher rents in lower-income neighborhoods nearby. Within weeks, the $29 billion private-equity company backed out of the deal, a swift and surprising victory for opponents. yAP世界播

一个月后,乔治·弗洛伊德(George Floyd)被杀引发了全美各地的示威活动,并激发了反对这笔交易的人士的热情。当地活动人士声称,这笔交易将取代购物中心布莱克拥有的商店,并导致附近低收入社区的租金上涨。几周内,这家价值290亿美元的私募股权公司退出了交易,这对反对者来说是一个迅速而令人惊讶的胜利。yAP世界播


That was only the start of the story. Homeowners, renters and business owners—including a pair of dueling local groups who hoped to buy the mall—are now divided over what should come next. yAP世界播

这只是故事的开始。房主、租房者和企业主-包括两个希望买下购物中心的争斗的当地团体-现在对下一步应该做什么意见不一。yAP世界播


The victors proclaimed the canceled sale a sign of the Black community’s growing strength. “We are seeing people who are thinking twice about doing these things, because there’s a big movement going on,” said William Smart Jr., a pastor and head of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference of Southern California. He is part of a group that would like the mall to be locally run and owned. yAP世界播

胜利者宣称这次被取消的拍卖是黑人社区日益强大的标志。南加州南部基督教领袖会议(Southern Christian Leadership Conference)主席、牧师小威廉·斯马特(William Smart Jr.)说,“我们看到人们在做这些事情时三思而后行,因为现在正在进行一场大运动。”他是一个希望购物中心在当地运营和拥有的团体的一员。yAP世界播


Some locals say they would welcome local ownership and the creation of affordable housing, but also worry that setting demands too high could make it hard to re-develop the mall. For many, especially local business owners, the primary focus is seeing the 73-year-old shopping center, which is now pockmarked with empty storefronts, made over and returned to its better days. yAP世界播

一些当地人表示,他们欢迎当地的所有权和经济适用房的建设,但也担心设定过高的要求可能会使购物中心的重新开发变得困难。对于许多人,特别是当地的企业主来说,首要的关注点是看到这个有73年历史的购物中心改头换面,回到昔日的美好时光。现在,这个购物中心被空荡荡的店面弄得坑坑洼洼。yAP世界播


Crenshaw Plaza has been a launchpad for minority-owned businesses, said Greg Dulan, co-owner of the mall’s Hotville Chicken restaurant. It was also the economic engine of the community, he said, “and that’s kind of fallen off in the last couple of years.” Like other businesspeople at Crenshaw Plaza, Shoneji Robison, co-owner of Southern Girl Desserts, worries about attracting more customers. yAP世界播

克伦肖广场一直是少数族裔企业的发射台,购物中心霍特维尔鸡肉餐厅的共同所有者格雷格·杜兰(Greg Dulan)说。它也是这个社区的经济引擎,他说,“但在过去的几年里,这一点有点失灵了。”像克伦肖广场的其他商人一样,南方女孩甜点的共同所有者肖尼吉·罗宾逊(Shoneji Robison)也担心吸引更多顾客。yAP世界播


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Shoneji Robison, co-owner of Southern Girl Desserts in the Baldwin Hills Crenshaw Plaza Mall, stands outside of her bakery. Jasmine Ligons works the walk-up counter. yAP世界播

鲍德温山克伦肖广场购物中心南方女孩甜点的共同所有者Shoneji Robison站在她的面包店外。茉莉·利根斯在无电梯柜台工作yAP世界播


Prospects for the mall are complicated by the troubles of shopping malls nationwide: years of online competition made worse by pandemic lockdowns. yAP世界播

全国各地购物中心的困境使购物中心的前景变得复杂:多年来的在线竞争因大流行封锁而变得更加糟糕。yAP世界播


The mall’s current owner is an investment fund, Capri Urban Investors, managed by Capri Investment Group, which has a Black chief executive. Capri didn’t respond to requests for comment. Capri was looking to sell the mall to pay back investors, as it wound up the fund that owns it, according to documents from the Los Angeles County Employees Retirement Association, an investor in the fund. yAP世界播

该购物中心目前的所有者是一家名为Capri Urban Investors的投资基金,由Capri Investment Group管理,该集团有一位黑人首席执行官。卡普里没有回复记者的置评请求。根据该基金的投资者洛杉矶县雇员退休协会(Los Angeles County Employees Retirement Association)的文件,卡普里正在寻求出售购物中心以偿还投资者,因为它结束了拥有购物中心的基金。yAP世界播


Like other malls in California, Crenshaw Plaza reopened briefly in mid-June and was ordered closed again in mid-July following a spike in coronavirus infections. It reopened again in October. yAP世界播

与加州的其他购物中心一样,克伦肖广场(Crenshaw Plaza)在6月中旬短暂重新开业,在冠状病毒感染激增后,又于7月中旬被勒令关闭。它在10月份重新开业。yAP世界播


“You’ve got an eyesore that’s not making any money. It’s dead,” said Cary Earle, who owns a fast-food restaurant with his brother down the street from the 869,000-square-foot Crenshaw Plaza. “People don’t get it. When you have something like that in the community, where it’s no longer a destination, the businesses in the area suffer.” yAP世界播

“你有一个不赚钱的眼中钉。卡里·厄尔(Cary Earle)说,他和哥哥在克伦肖广场(Crenshaw Plaza)附近的街道上开了一家快餐店。克伦肖广场占地86.9万平方英尺。“人们不明白这一点。当你在社区里有这样的事情时,它不再是一个目的地,该地区的企业就会受到影响。“。yAP世界播


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Cary Earle, co-owner of Earle’s outside his restaurant, located across the street from Baldwin Hills Crenshaw Plaza. An Earle’s employee fills delivery and takeout orders. yAP世界播

加里·厄尔(Cary Earle)是厄尔餐厅的共同所有者,这家餐厅位于鲍德温山克伦肖广场(Baldwin Hills Crenshaw Plaza)对面。伯爵的员工完成送货和外卖订单yAP世界播


Crenshaw Plaza opened as an outdoor shopping center in 1947. A year later, the Supreme Court ruled that the enforcement of covenants barring anyone other than white from buying homes violated the law. Over the decades that followed, Black families moved into previously all-white areas in Los Angeles County, changing the demographics in many neighborhoods. yAP世界播

克伦肖广场于1947年开业,当时是一个户外购物中心。一年后,最高法院裁定,执行禁止除白人以外的任何人购房的公约违反了法律。在接下来的几十年里,黑人家庭搬进了洛杉矶县以前全是白人的地区,改变了许多社区的人口结构。yAP世界播


By the 1970s, neighborhoods around Crenshaw Plaza had become majority-Black. Ray Charles and Tina Turner were among the Black celebrities who bought homes. The shopping center had stores including Sears and a landmark May Company department store, along with smaller Black-owned businesses. “It’s not just a mall, this is a cultural center,” said Malik Muhammad, owner of Malik Books in the mall. yAP世界播

到了20世纪70年代,克伦肖广场(Crenshaw Plaza)周围的街区已经变成了黑人占多数的社区。雷·查尔斯(Ray Charles)和蒂娜·特纳(Tina Turner)是买房的黑人名人之一。购物中心有包括西尔斯(Sears)在内的商店和具有里程碑意义的梅公司(May Company)百货商店,以及规模较小的布莱克(Black)所有的企业。Malik Books的店主马利克·穆罕默德(Malik Muhammad)说:“这不仅仅是一个购物中心,这里还是一个文化中心。”yAP世界播


Local residents say the opposition to the CIM redevelopment can be traced to the 2008 financial crisis. After a rash of foreclosures, investment firms bought homes in South Los Angeles that they turned into rentals, spreading worries about pricing out local families. yAP世界播

当地居民说,反对CIM重建的声音可以追溯到2008年的金融危机。在一系列丧失抵押品赎回权的情况下,投资公司在洛杉矶南部购买了房屋,并将其转化为租赁,分散了人们对当地家庭被定价赶走的担忧。yAP世界播


In the economic recovery, the demographics near the mall began turning more affluent and more white, said Paul Ong, director of UCLA’s Center for Neighborhood Knowledge. “I think the big fear was around Crenshaw Plaza accelerating that,” he said. yAP世界播

加州大学洛杉矶分校(UCLA)社区知识中心(Center For Neighborhood Knowledge)主任保罗·王(Paul Ong)说,随着经济复苏,购物中心附近的人口开始变得更加富裕和白人。他说:“我认为最大的担忧是克伦肖广场加速了这一进程。”yAP世界播


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Malik Muhammad speaks to a customer in his bookstore, Malik Books. His daughter Mecca considers what she’ll read next. yAP世界播

马利克·穆罕默德(Malik Muhammad)在他的书店马利克图书(Malik Books)里与一位顾客交谈。他的女儿麦加在考虑下一步要读什么yAP世界播


CIM had plans to turn part of the Crenshaw Plaza property into offices. Some opponents said that would draw new white-collar workers and drive up neighborhood rents. Others also opposed the company because it had done business years earlier with the Trump Organization and Kushner Companies. yAP世界播

CIM曾计划将克伦肖广场(Crenshaw Plaza)的部分物业改建为写字楼。一些反对者表示,这将吸引新的白领工人,并推高社区租金。其他人也反对该公司,因为它几年前曾与特朗普集团(Trump Organization)和库什纳(Kushner)公司做过生意。yAP世界播


Race became a flashpoint. Some activists demanded the mall have Black ownership. Others disagreed. “It’s not a matter of whether it’s a white owner, or green or Black. Will it help the community?” said Mr. Earle, the restaurant owner. yAP世界播

种族成了一个引爆点。一些活动人士要求购物中心拥有黑人的所有权。其他人则不同意。“这不是白人车主、绿色车主还是黑人车主的问题。这会对社区有帮助吗?“。餐厅老板厄尔说。yAP世界播


On June 2, CIM, the group that originally planned to buy the mall, posted a statement on Instagram supporting the Black Lives Matter movement. The company said it would re-evaluate its recruiting and operations “with a clear focus on promoting diversity and inclusion in all aspects of our working lives.” yAP世界播

6月2日,最初计划收购该购物中心的CIM集团在Instagram上发布了一份声明,支持黑人生命也是运动。该公司表示,将重新评估其招聘和运营,“明确的重点是促进多样性和包容性,融入我们工作生活的方方面面。”yAP世界播


On June 14, the company announced its exit from the deal. In a written statement, CIM principal Avi Shemesh said that its plans for the mall were “principally designed to bring jobs into the community.” yAP世界播

6月14日,该公司宣布退出这笔交易。在一份书面声明中,CIM负责人阿维·谢梅什(Avi Shemesh)表示,该购物中心的计划“主要是为了给社区带来就业机会”。yAP世界播


A group of local residents said in August that they had submitted a bid to buy the mall. The amount of the bid wasn’t publicly disclosed. Their plans were to redevelop it with money from investors and smaller contributions from neighbors. Their idea was to give locals a chance to buy stakes in the project for as little as a few hundred dollars. The group started talks with institutional investors, according to people familiar with the matter. yAP世界播

一群当地居民在8月份表示,他们已经提交了购买该购物中心的投标。出价金额没有公开披露。他们的计划是利用投资者的资金和邻居的较小贡献来重新开发它。他们的想法是让当地人有机会以低至几百美元的价格购买该项目的股份。据知情人士透露,该集团开始与机构投资者谈判。yAP世界播


“Everywhere across the country, no one has solved the gentrification issue,” said Jacquelyn Dupont-Walker, who is working with the group. yAP世界播

与该组织合作的杰奎琳·杜邦-沃克(Jacquelyn Dupont-Walker)说,“在全国各地,没有人解决过士绅化问题。”yAP世界播


Taking over the mall property is an opportunity to help ensure that the area’s demographics won’t change, she said, by including apartments affordable to local renters and first-time buyers. yAP世界播

她说,接管购物中心物业是一个机会,可以帮助确保该地区的人口结构不会发生变化,包括当地租户和首次购房者负担得起的公寓。yAP世界播


A second group that includes Damien Goodmon, who had been a vocal opponent of the mall’s sale, said it submitted a rival bid. Mr. Goodmon, who said his group, Downtown Crenshaw Rising, has more than 1,500 members, said he wanted most of the new apartments for lower-income renters. Offices and retail space should be affordable for local businesses and cooperatives, he said. yAP世界播

包括达米恩·古德蒙(Damien Goodmon)在内的第二个团体表示,他们提交了一份竞争性报价。古德蒙一直是该购物中心出售的直言不讳的反对者。古德蒙说,他的团体“克伦肖市中心崛起”(Downtown Crenshaw Rise)有1500多名成员。他说,他想要大部分新公寓都是为低收入租客准备的。他说,当地企业和合作社应该负担得起写字楼和零售空间。yAP世界播


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Damien Goodmon (left) and William Smart Jr., (right) and members of Downtown Crenshaw Rising, a community group. yAP世界播

Damien Goodmon(左)和William Smart Jr.(右)以及社区组织Downtown Crenshaw Rise的成员yAP世界播


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The group Downtown Crenshaw Rising would like the mall to be community-run. yAP世界播

克伦肖市中心崛起组织(Downtown Crenshaw Rise)希望购物中心由社区运营yAP世界播


Ms. Dupont-Walker and Sherri Franklin, chief executive of community development company Urban Design Center, said they were open to building both market-rate apartments and affordable units alongside a high-quality retail destination. yAP世界播

杜邦-沃克和社区开发公司城市设计中心(Urban Design Center)的首席执行官雪莉·富兰克林(Sherri Franklin)说,他们愿意在建设高品质零售目的地的同时,建造市价公寓和经济适用房。yAP世界播


In a sign of how CIM’s reversal has changed the equation, the property’s brokerage told potential bidders that any deal would require close community participation, said people familiar with the matter. The companies overseeing the sale brought on two local Black real-estate executives, including a former executive of the company that currently owns the mall, to serve as liaisons with the Los Angeles City Council and community groups. yAP世界播

知情人士表示,CIM的逆转改变了局面的一个迹象是,该地产的经纪公司告诉潜在竞购者,任何交易都需要社区的密切参与。负责这笔交易的公司聘请了两名当地的Black房地产高管,其中包括目前拥有该购物中心的公司的一名前高管,担任洛杉矶市议会(Los Angeles City Council)和社区团体的联络人。yAP世界播


Last month, a new group of investment firms, L.A.-based LIVWRK and New York-based DFH Partners LLC, announced they had agreed to buy the mall. People familiar with the matter say the buyers agreed to pay around $110 million, roughly $20 million less than CIM’s price. yAP世界播

上个月,一批新的投资公司,洛杉矶的LIVWRK和纽约的DFH Partners LLC宣布,他们已经同意收购该购物中心。知情人士说,买家同意支付约1.1亿美元,比CIM的价格低了大约2,000万美元。yAP世界播


LIVWRK’s CEO Asher Abehsera said he has been holding meetings with local elected officials and influential residents and plans to allow locals to invest in the project through Ms. Franklin’s group, the Baldwin Hills Crenshaw Economic Development Partnership yAP世界播

LIVWRK的首席执行官Asher Abehsera说,他一直在与当地民选官员和有影响力的居民举行会议,并计划允许当地人通过富兰克林的集团鲍德温山克伦肖经济发展伙伴关系(Baldwin Hills Crenshaw Economic Development Partnership)投资该项目。yAP世界播


Ms. Franklin said she quickly realized that locals don’t have enough money to develop a project that could cost as much as $1 billion. She and her partners now want to work with Mr. Abehsera to try to influence what is being built. They are hoping to raise as much as $100 million from local residents to buy a minority stake in the project. yAP世界播

富兰克林说,她很快意识到,当地人没有足够的资金来开发一个可能耗资高达10亿美元的项目。她和她的合作伙伴现在希望与阿贝塞拉合作,试图影响正在建设的项目。他们希望从当地居民那里筹集多达1亿美元,以购买该项目的少数股权。yAP世界播


“I can’t say it’s going to be perfect, but 20% or 30% is going to be better than zero,” she said. yAP世界播

她说:“我不能说这会是完美的,但20%或30%总比零好。”yAP世界播


LIVWRK, like CIM, has done business with Kushner Companies in the past. “They changed the jerseys at halftime and want us to believe they’re a different team,” said Mr. Goodmon. Local resistance stopped CIM from buying the mall and can do the same with LIVWRK, he said. He still plans to buy the property with local money and other investors. yAP世界播

与CIM一样,LIVWRK过去也曾与库什纳公司做过生意。“他们在中场休息时换了球衣,想让我们相信他们是一支不同的球队,”古德蒙说。他说,当地的阻力阻止了CIM收购该购物中心,并可以对LIVWRK采取同样的行动。他仍计划用当地资金和其他投资者购买这处房产。yAP世界播


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Locals are divided about the future of the Baldwin Hills Crenshaw Plaza Mall. yAP世界播

当地人对鲍德温山克伦肖广场购物中心的未来看法不一yAP世界播


Mr. Smart Jr., the pastor, said he wants the mall to be “totally Black-owned and community-run” and opposes the buyers in part because their principals are white and have few ties to the neighborhood. He said he hasn’t spoken to Mr. Abehsera yet, but is already working with a group of people, including Mr. Goodmon, to try to block the sale of a property he considers “sacred.” yAP世界播

牧师小斯马特说,他希望购物中心“完全由黑人拥有,由社区经营”,并反对买家,部分原因是他们的业主是白人,与附近社区几乎没有什么联系。他说,他还没有和阿贝塞拉谈过话,但已经在与包括古德蒙在内的一群人合作,试图阻止出售他认为“神圣”的一处房产。yAP世界播


“We want it all or nothing,” he said. yAP世界播

“我们要么什么都要,要么什么都不要,”他说。yAP世界播

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