忘了硅吧。这种材料可能会改变太阳能的游戏规则

2020-10-14 17:30

Forget silicon. This material could be a game-changer for solar power dgI世界播

忘了硅吧。这种材料可能会改变太阳能的游戏规则dgI世界播


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exp solar photovoltaics energy perovskites spc intl_00005508 dgI世界播

EXP太阳能光伏能量钙钛矿SPC IntL_00005508dgI世界播


Oxford, UK (CNN Business)Solar energy is poised for what could be its biggest transformation in over half a century. dgI世界播

英国牛津(CNN商业报道)太阳能即将迎来半个多世纪以来最大的变革。dgI世界播


A group of materials called perovskites are being used to create the next generation of solar panels, which could eventually be twice as efficient as current models, and flexible enough to wrap around entire buildings. dgI世界播

一组名为钙钛矿的材料正被用来制造下一代太阳能电池板,这种电池板的效率最终可能是目前模型的两倍,而且足够灵活,可以包裹整个建筑。dgI世界播


The first solar cell capable of powering everyday electrical equipment was made in the 1950s at Bell Labs in New Jersey. Back then the silicon-based panels were hugely expensive and converted just 6% of sunlight into electricity. dgI世界播

第一块能够为日常电气设备供电的太阳能电池是在20世纪50年代在新泽西州的贝尔实验室制造的。当时,硅基电池板非常昂贵,只将6%的阳光转化为电能。dgI世界播


Since then, costs have come down dramatically and today's silicon solar cells can turn up to 22% of sunlight into power. But they're nearly maxed out in terms of efficiency. Now, perovskites offer the potential for dramatic increases in power output, and they could ultimately replace silicon altogether. dgI世界播

从那时起,成本大幅下降,今天的硅太阳能电池可以将高达22%的阳光转化为电力。但就效率而言,它们几乎达到了极限。现在,钙钛矿提供了大幅增加功率输出的潜力,它们最终可能完全取代硅。dgI世界播


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Researchers at Oxford PV, a company spun out of the University of Oxford, made a major breakthrough in 2018. By coating silicon with perovskite they achieved 28% efficiency. The company believes it can eventually reach 40%, or higher. dgI世界播

从牛津大学剥离出来的牛津光伏公司的研究人员在2018年取得了重大突破。通过在硅上涂覆钙钛矿,他们获得了28%的效率。该公司认为最终可以达到40%,甚至更高。dgI世界播


Improved solar cell efficiency will enable installations to pump out more power with fewer panels, reducing costs, and the amount of land, labor and equipment needed to operate them. dgI世界播

太阳能电池效率的提高将使装置能够用更少的电池板输送更多的电力,从而降低成本,以及操作它们所需的土地、劳动力和设备的数量。dgI世界播


"If we want to make it that all new power generation is solar photovoltaics, then we need to keep driving the price down," Henry Snaith, professor of physics at the University of Oxford and co-founder of Oxford PV, tells CNN Business. "One way to do that is to keep pushing the efficiency or the power output of the module up, and this is where perovskites really come into play." dgI世界播

牛津大学物理学教授、牛津光伏公司联合创始人亨利·斯奈思告诉CNN Business:“如果我们想让所有的新发电都是太阳能光伏发电,那么我们就需要不断压低价格,”亨利·斯奈思(Henry Snaith)是牛津大学的物理学教授,也是牛津光伏公司的联合创始人。“要做到这一点,一种方法是不断提高模块的效率或功率输出,这才是钙钛矿真正发挥作用的地方。”dgI世界播


Solar potential dgI世界播

太阳势。dgI世界播


Perovskite was discovered in 1839. Oxford PV uses a synthetic version, made from inexpensive materials that are abundant in the Earth's crust, while other companies use variations of the original mineral, collectively called perovskites. dgI世界播

钙钛矿于1839年被发现。牛津光伏使用合成版本,由地壳中丰富的廉价材料制成,而其他公司使用原始矿物的变体,统称为钙钛矿。dgI世界播


As well as improved solar efficiency, they work better than silicon in the shade, on cloudy days or even indoors. Perovskites can be printed using an inkjet printer and can be as thin as wallpaper. dgI世界播

除了提高太阳能效率外,它们在阴凉处、阴天甚至室内都比硅效果更好。钙钛矿可以用喷墨打印机打印,可以像墙纸一样薄。dgI世界播


Oxford PV hopes perovskite will eventually replace silicon entirely. dgI世界播

牛津光伏希望钙钛矿最终能完全取代硅。dgI世界播


"In the coming decades, all-perovskite solar coatings promise to raise efficiencies even further, reduce the weight and shipping cost of solar equipment," says Varun Sivaram, energy expert and author of "Taming the Sun: Innovations to Harness Solar Energy and Power the Planet," who worked with Snaith while studying at Oxford. dgI世界播

能源专家瓦伦·西瓦拉姆(Varun Sivaram)说:“在接下来的几十年里,全钙钛矿型太阳能涂层有望进一步提高效率,降低太阳能设备的重量和运输成本。”瓦伦·西瓦拉姆著有“驯服太阳:利用太阳能和为地球供电的创新”(Taming the Sun:Innovation to Harness Solar Energy and Power the Planet)一书。他在牛津求学期间曾与斯奈思合作。dgI世界播


He says that as the technology develops, perovskite could be sprayed or rolled onto flexible surfaces. Semitransparent solar coatings could even be wrapped around whole buildings. dgI世界播

他说,随着技术的发展,钙钛矿可以喷涂或滚动到柔性表面。半透明的太阳能涂层甚至可以包裹在整栋建筑的周围。dgI世界播


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How cities are using technology to solve their trash problems dgI世界播

城市如何利用技术解决垃圾问题dgI世界播


Oxford PV aims to begin producing cells made from perovskite on silicon early next year at a new purpose-built factory in Brandenburg, Germany. It estimates that panels made from the cells could save homeowners up to $1,000 on the purchase and installation of the average solar system. dgI世界播

牛津光伏公司的目标是明年初在德国勃兰登堡的一家新的专门建造的工厂开始生产钙钛矿硅基电池。据估计,用这种电池制造的电池板可以为房主节省购买和安装普通太阳能系统的高达1000美元。dgI世界播


Other companies working with perovskite include Warsaw-based Saule Technologies, which has secured funding of 10 million ($11.7 million) from Polish photovoltaics company Columbus Energy. dgI世界播

其他与钙钛矿合作的公司包括总部位于华沙的Saule Technologies,该公司已从波兰光伏公司Columbus Energy获得1000万欧元(约合1170万美元)的资金。dgI世界播


Last month, Saule Technologies' new factory in Warsaw began printing perovskite solar cells using inkjet printers. Early next year, it will start supplying Swedish construction company Skanska Group, which says it wants to be the first developer to attach printed solar cells to the faade of a building on a commercial scale. dgI世界播

上个月,Saule Technologies在华沙的新工厂开始使用喷墨打印机打印钙钛矿型太阳能电池。明年初,该公司将开始向瑞典建筑公司斯堪斯卡集团(Skanska Group)供货。斯堪斯卡集团表示,希望成为第一家将印刷太阳能电池安装到商业规模建筑正面的开发商。dgI世界播


"It is set to be a game-changer in the energy sector, because it works in every lighting condition," says Saule Technologies co-founder Olga Malinkiewicz. "You can make it flexible. It's a wonderful material. Architects will love it." dgI世界播

Saule Technologies的联合创始人Olga Malinkiewicz说:“它将成为能源领域的游戏规则改变者,因为它在任何照明条件下都能发挥作用。”“你可以让它变得灵活。这是一种很棒的材料。建筑师会喜欢它的。”dgI世界播

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