美联社公路旅行:美国“夕阳小镇”的种族紧张局势

2020-10-14 14:06

AP Road Trip: Racial tensions in America's 'sundown towns' 22c世界播

美联社公路旅行:美国“夕阳小镇”的种族紧张局势22c世界播


暂无22c世界播


VIENNA, Ill. (AP) — Ask around this time-battered Midwestern town, with its empty storefronts, dusty antique shops and businesses that have migrated toward the interstate, and nearly everyone will tell you that Black and white residents get along really well. 22c世界播

伊利诺伊州维也纳。(美联社)-问问这个时间不长的中西部小镇,空荡荡的店面,尘土飞扬的古董店和迁移到州际公路的企业,几乎每个人都会告诉你,黑人和白人居民相处得真的很好。22c世界播


“Race isn’t a big problem around here,” said Bill Stevens, a white retired prison guard with a gentle smile, drinking beer with friends on a summer afternoon. “Never has been, really.” 22c世界播

“种族不是这里的大问题,”比尔·史蒂文斯(Bill Stevens)说,他是一名白人退休狱警,在一个夏日的下午和朋友们喝着啤酒,脸上挂着温和的微笑。“从来没有过,真的。”22c世界播


“We don’t have any trouble with racism,” said a twice-widowed woman, also white, with a meticulously-kept yard and a white picket fence. 22c世界播

“我们在种族主义问题上没有任何问题,”一位寡居两次的妇女说,她也是白人,有一个精心打理的院子和白色的尖桩栅栏。22c世界播


But in Vienna, as in hundreds of mostly white towns with similar histories across America, much is left unspoken. Around here, almost no one talks openly about the violence that drove out Black residents nearly 70 years ago, or even whispers the name these places were given: “sundown towns.” 22c世界播

但在维也纳,就像在全美数百个有着相似历史的以白人为主的城镇一样,有很多事情没有说出来。在这里,几乎没有人公开谈论近70年前驱逐黑人居民的暴力事件,甚至没有人低声说出这些地方被赋予的名字:“日落小镇”。22c世界播


Unless they’re among the handful of Black residents. 22c世界播

除非他们是少数黑人居民中的一员。22c世界播


“It’s real strange and weird out here sometimes,” said Nicholas Lewis, a stay-at-home father. “Every time I walk around, eyes are on me.” 22c世界播

“这里有时候真的很奇怪,”尼古拉斯·刘易斯(Nicholas Lewis)说,他是一名全职父亲。“每次我走来走去,眼睛都盯着我。”22c世界播


The rules of a sundown town were simple: Black people were allowed to pass through during the day or go in to shop or work, but they had to be gone by nightfall. Anyone breaking the rules could risk arrest, a beating or worse. 22c世界播

日落小镇的规定很简单:黑人可以在白天经过,或进入商店或工作,但他们必须在傍晚前离开。任何违反规则的人都可能面临被捕、殴打或更糟的风险。22c世界播


These towns were an open secret of racial segregation that spilled over much of the nation for at least a century, and still exist in various forms, enforced today more by tradition and fear than by rules. 22c世界播

这些城镇是种族隔离的公开秘密,至少一个世纪以来,种族隔离蔓延到全国大部分地区,至今仍以各种形式存在,今天更多的是通过传统和恐惧而不是规则来强制执行。22c世界播


Across America, some of these towns are now openly wrestling with their histories, publicly acknowledging now-abandoned racist laws or holding racial justice protests. Some old sundown towns are now integrated. But many also still have tiny Black communities living alongside residents who don’t bother hiding their cold stares of disapproval. 22c世界播

在美国各地,一些这样的城镇现在正在公开与自己的历史搏斗,公开承认现在已经被抛弃的种族主义法律,或者举行种族正义抗议活动。一些夕阳西下的老镇现在被合并了。但许多人仍然有很小的黑人社区与居民生活在一起,他们不会费心掩饰自己冷漠的反对目光。22c世界播


This story was produced with the support of the Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting. 22c世界播

这篇报道是在普利策危机报道中心的支持下制作的。22c世界播


This part of southern Illinois had at least a half-dozen sundown towns. We came here on the second stop of The Associated Press’ road trip across America, a reporting journey that three of us are taking to look at how the U.S. has been shaken and shaped by months of protests, the COVID-19 pandemic, an economic crisis and the looming November elections. 22c世界播

伊利诺伊州南部的这一部分至少有六个日落城镇。我们来到这里是美联社横穿美国之旅的第二站,我们三个人将通过这次报道之旅来看看美国是如何被持续数月的抗议活动、新冠肺炎疫情、经济危机以及即将到来的11月选举所动摇和塑造的。22c世界播


We wanted to take a close look at systemic racism, trying to understand how something that is so crushingly obvious to some people can be utterly invisible to others. 22c世界播

我们想要仔细观察系统性种族主义,试图理解为什么一些人如此明显的东西对另一些人却完全看不见。22c世界播


So we went to a longtime sundown town. 22c世界播

所以我们去了一个很久以前的日落小镇。22c世界播


They were called “grey towns,” in some parts of America, “sunset towns” in others. The terms were used by both Black and white people. 22c世界播

它们在美国的一些地方被称为“灰色城镇”,在另一些地方被称为“夕阳城镇”。黑人和白人都使用这些术语。22c世界播


Very often, especially in well-to-do suburbs that didn’t want to be known as racist, they had no name at all. But they still kept out Black residents. There were hundreds of such towns, scholars say, reaching from New York to Oregon. Perhaps thousands. 22c世界播

很多时候,特别是在不想被称为种族主义者的富裕郊区,他们根本没有名字。但他们仍然把黑人居民拒之门外。学者们说,从纽约到俄勒冈州,有数百个这样的城镇。也许有几千人。22c世界播


James Loewen, a historian who spent years studying sundown towns, found them in the suburbs of Detroit, New York City and Chicago. He found them outside Los Angeles, in midwestern farming villages and in New England summer towns. 22c世界播

詹姆斯·洛文(James Loewen)是一位花了数年时间研究日落城镇的历史学家,他在底特律、纽约市和芝加哥的郊区发现了日落城镇。他在洛杉矶郊外、中西部的农村和新英格兰的避暑小镇发现了它们。22c世界播


Sometimes, the rules were official policies, with signs at the edge of towns warning Black people to be gone by nightfall. More often, everyone - both Black and white - simply knew the unwritten rules. 22c世界播

有时,这些规定是官方政策,城镇边缘有告示,警告黑人在傍晚前离开。更多的时候,每个人--无论是黑人还是白人--都知道这些不成文的规则。22c世界播


In this area, near the borders of both Missouri and Kentucky, young Black people were raised to be aware of which towns they should avoid. 22c世界播

在这个靠近密苏里州和肯塔基州边界的地区,年轻的黑人被教育要意识到他们应该避开哪些城镇。22c世界播


“It was something that was known,” said James Davis, 27, a Black truck driver from the nearby town of Cairo, which is largely Black. “But also something that our parents taught us growing up.” 22c世界播

“这是众所周知的事情,”27岁的詹姆斯·戴维斯(James Davis)说,他是一名黑人卡车司机,来自附近的开罗小镇,那里大部分是黑人。“也是我们的父母从小到大教给我们的东西。”22c世界播


In places still seen as sundown towns, many Black people now follow their own rules: Avoid them if possible, and lock your car doors if you have to drive through. If you stop for gas, look for a well-lit gas station with security cameras. 22c世界播

在仍然被视为日落城镇的地方,许多黑人现在遵循自己的规则:如果可能的话,避开他们,如果你必须开车通过,就锁上车门。如果你停下来加油,找一家光线好、有安全摄像头的加油站。22c世界播


So it is in Vienna. 22c世界播

维也纳也是如此。22c世界播


“Every time you come into town, or you go into a gas station, or in a store, people look at you,” said Victoria Vaughn, a biracial 17-year-old who has been coming to Vienna for years to visit her white grandparents. 22c世界播

17岁的混血儿维多利亚·沃恩(Victoria Vaughn)多年来一直来维也纳看望她的白人祖父母,她说,“每次你进城,或者走进加油站,或者在商店里,人们都会看着你。”22c世界播


“You can feel them looking at you, feel them staring,” she said. “I’ve never had anybody say anything (racist) to me in Vienna, but I’ve definitely felt the way they felt about me.” 22c世界播

“你能感觉到他们在看着你,感觉到他们在盯着你,”她说。“在维也纳,我从来没有让任何人对我说过任何(种族主义的)话,但我绝对感受到了他们对我的感觉。”22c世界播


She was in Vienna on a recent Saturday to join a rally organized after a group of Vienna High School students created a social media account that included the phrase “hate Black people” in its title. Vaughn and her grandmother were among the 50 or so people who turned out for the rally, along with about 25 counter-protesters. 22c世界播

最近一个周六,她在维也纳参加了一场集会,此前一群维也纳高中生创建了一个社交媒体账号,在账号标题中包含了“仇恨黑人”一词。沃恩和她的祖母是参加集会的大约50人之一,还有大约25名反抗议者。22c世界播


At first things went well. Protesters and counter-protesters prayed together. They talked calmly about race. But not for long. 22c世界播

起初,事情进行得很顺利。抗议者和反抗议者一起祈祷。他们平静地谈论种族问题。但不会太久22c世界播


“Bullshit!” an older white man shouted at Vaughn, after she said Black people aren’t treated equally. “They get the same as the white people get!” 22c世界播

“胡说!”一名年长的白人男子对沃恩大喊大叫,因为她说黑人没有得到平等对待。“他们得到的和白人一样!”22c世界播


Vaughn, whose grandmother gently pulled her back from the confrontation with the angry older man, isn’t surprised that Vienna’s white residents don’t see racial issues around them. The situation is far more subtle today than when Black residents were forced out. 22c世界播

沃恩的祖母温和地将她从与愤怒的老人的对峙中拉了回来,对于维也纳的白人居民没有看到他们周围的种族问题,沃恩并不感到惊讶。今天的情况比黑人居民被迫离开时要微妙得多。22c世界播


“Until you live in a Black or brown person’s body you’re not going to understand,” she said. “You have to know somebody who lived it, or live it yourself, to truly understand.” 22c世界播

“除非你生活在黑色或棕色人的身体里,否则你是不会明白的,”她说。“你必须认识亲身经历过它的人,或者亲身经历过它,才能真正理解。”22c世界播


Today it’s just an overgrown field, vibrant green from recent rains. 22c世界播

今天,它只是一片杂草丛生的田野,最近的雨水带来了生机勃勃的绿色。22c世界播


But 60 years ago, there was a small collection of houses along that stretch of 7th Street, where the outer edges of Vienna bump up against Little Cache Creek. Everyone who lived there was Black. 22c世界播

但60年前,在维也纳外缘与小缓存溪相撞的第7街沿线,有一小群房屋。住在那里的人都是黑人。22c世界播


The violence erupted in August, 1954, after the arrest of a 31-year-old resident, Thomas Lee Latham, who was accused of brutally beating an elderly white woman with a soft drink bottle and trying to rape her granddaughter. 22c世界播

暴力事件爆发于1954年8月,当时31岁的居民托马斯·李·莱瑟姆(Thomas Lee Latham)被捕,她被控用软饮料瓶残忍殴打一名白人老年妇女,并试图强奸她的孙女。22c世界播


"Vienna Negro Held on Charge of Assault With Attempt to Murder,” the Vienna Times declared on its front page after Latham was arrested, hours after the attack. The older woman died days later. 22c世界播

袭击发生几个小时后,“维也纳时报”在莱瑟姆被捕后在头版宣布:“维也纳黑人被控企图谋杀。”几天后,这名年长的女子死亡。22c世界播


A few weeks after his arrest, Latham escaped from jail. Dozens of armed men took to the streets of Vienna and the surrounding fields, backed up by bloodhounds and spotters in low-flying planes. 22c世界播

被捕几周后,莱瑟姆越狱了。数十名武装人员走上维也纳街头和周围的田野,在低空飞行的飞机上的猎犬和观察员的支持下。22c世界播


Within hours, the cluster of Black homes along 7th Street were ablaze, with smoke and flames rising above the town. 22c世界播

几个小时内,第七街沿线的黑人住宅集群起火,小镇上空升起浓烟和火焰。22c世界播


A week or so later Latham gave himself up and pleaded guilty. One day after he surrendered, he was sentenced to 180 years in prison. 22c世界播

大约一周后,莱瑟姆自首并认罪。在他投降后的一天,他被判处180年监禁。22c世界播


By then, the town’s Black residents were gone. 22c世界播

到那时,镇上的黑人居民都走了。22c世界播


"The Black community, from that point on, disappeared from Vienna,” said Darrel Dexter, a historian and high school teacher who has studied the violence of 1954. 22c世界播

“从那时起,黑人社区就从维也纳消失了,”研究1954年暴力事件的历史学家、高中教师达雷尔·德克斯特(Darrel Dexter)说。22c世界播


Black people had lived in and around Vienna since the late 1820s or early 1830s, said Dexter. But he estimates that after the fires, perhaps 50 people fled the town. The town later repaid Black residents for their lost homes, the Times reported, though there is no indication anyone was ever prosecuted. 22c世界播

德克斯特说,自19世纪20年代末或19世纪30年代初以来,黑人一直生活在维也纳及其周边地区。但他估计,火灾发生后,可能有50人逃离该镇。据泰晤士报报道,该镇后来偿还了黑人居民失去的房屋,尽管没有迹象表明有人曾被起诉。22c世界播


The 1950 census showed 54 Black people living in Vienna. 22c世界播

1950年的人口普查显示,维也纳有54名黑人。22c世界播


In 2000, it showed one. 22c世界播

在2000年,它展示了一个。22c世界播


A couple of blocks from the field where Vienna’s Black community once lived, down a narrow dead-end street, a grandmother with pink fingernails and an easy laugh watches over an extended family that spans much of America’s Black-white divide. 22c世界播

在距离维也纳黑人社区曾经居住的田野几个街区的地方,沿着一条狭窄的死胡同走下去,一位留着粉色指甲、很容易笑的祖母守护着一个跨越美国大部分黑人和白人鸿沟的大家庭。22c世界播


They are not what you’d expect to find here. 22c世界播

它们不是你想要在这里找到的。22c世界播


“It’s our sanctuary,” Maribeth Harris said of the street. One of her daughters lives next door. Another lives across the street with her boyfriend, Nicholas Lewis. Harris has custody of three grandkids while Lewis cares for the fourth, an 18-month-old in Spiderman pajamas on a recent afternoon. 22c世界播

“这是我们的避难所,”玛丽贝丝·哈里斯(Maribeth Harris)在谈到这条街时说。她的一个女儿住在隔壁。另一个和她的男朋友尼古拉斯·刘易斯住在街对面。哈里斯有三个孙子孙女的监护权,而刘易斯负责照顾第四个孙子孙女,最近的一个下午,一个18个月大的孩子穿着蜘蛛侠睡衣。22c世界播


Harris, her husband and their daughters are white. Lewis is Black. The grandchildren are biracial. 22c世界播

哈里斯,她的丈夫和他们的女儿都是白人。刘易斯是黑人。孙子孙女是混血儿。22c世界播


“This is our own little world down here,” Harris said, sighing before she begins listing some of the troubles the family has faced. “They just brush everything under the rug.” 22c世界播

“这是我们自己的小世界,”哈里斯说,在她开始列举这家人面临的一些麻烦之前,她叹了口气。“他们只是把一切都掩盖起来。”22c世界播


There was the time one of the kids was called “burned toast” by a classmate. Or when an elderly woman walked past the family at a church dinner and loudly called the children “damn half-breeds.” 22c世界播

有一次,其中一个孩子被同学称为“烧焦的吐司”。或者,当一位年长的妇女在教堂晚宴上走过这家人的时候,她大声说孩子们是“该死的混血儿”。22c世界播


There was the day the 10-year-old came home with a painful question: “Grandma, why do I have to be Black?” 22c世界播

有一天,10岁的孩子带着一个痛苦的问题回家:“奶奶,为什么我必须是黑人?”22c世界播


She and her husband moved to Vienna about 10 years ago from northern Illinois, chasing work and a cheaper cost of living. But with her oldest grandson edging up on adolescence, she knows they should leave soon, before they have to worry about such things as confrontations with police. 22c世界播

大约10年前,她和丈夫从伊利诺伊州北部搬到维也纳,追求工作和更便宜的生活成本。但随着她的长孙逐渐步入青春期,她知道他们应该尽快离开,在他们不得不担心与警方发生冲突等事情之前。22c世界播


“We want to get out of here,” she said. “We have to figure out what’s good for them. And Vienna won’t be good for them.” 22c世界播

“我们想离开这里,”她说。“我们必须弄清楚什么是对他们有利的。而维也纳对他们不会有好处。“。22c世界播


Lewis joined the little enclave two years ago, expecting a short visit but staying after his girlfriend, one of Harris’ daughters, got pregnant. 22c世界播

刘易斯两年前加入了这块小飞地,期待着短暂的访问,但在他的女朋友,哈里斯的一个女儿怀孕后留了下来。22c世界播


He’s an unassuming man deeply in love with his young son, Nick. If he hasn’t felt the sting of outright racism in Vienna, he’s exhausted by how residents constantly watch him. 22c世界播

他是个谦逊的人,深深地爱着他年幼的儿子尼克。如果他没有在维也纳感受到彻头彻尾的种族主义的刺痛,他会被当地居民不断观看他的方式弄得精疲力竭。22c世界播


It’s complicated, he added, because most people are friendly once they know him. But he also believes his family should leave. 22c世界播

他补充说,这很复杂,因为大多数人一旦认识他就会很友好。但他也认为他的家人应该离开。22c世界播


“I don’t want my son raised down here,” he said. “I don’t want him out here where (white people) are all he sees.” 22c世界播

“我不想让我的儿子在这里长大,”他说。“我不希望他出现在这里,因为他看到的只有(白人)。”22c世界播


They call themselves The Gunsmoke Club. 22c世界播

他们自称“枪炮俱乐部”。22c世界播


Their clubhouse, a few miles outside Vienna, is an old gas station, later turned into a convenience store and now a gathering place for a dozen or so friends. It’s part workshop, part bar, part informal store. But mostly it’s a place for a bunch of gray-haired men to pass the time, drink light beer and relive a sliver of their childhoods every day at noon with reruns of “Gunsmoke,” the TV show about a marshal whose steely nerve and Colt revolver kept the peace in the American West. 22c世界播

他们的会所在维也纳郊外几英里处,是一个旧的加油站,后来变成了一家便利店,现在是十几个朋友的聚集地。一部分是车间,一部分是酒吧,一部分是非正式商店。但最主要的是,它是一群头发花白的男人打发时间的地方,喝着清淡的啤酒,每天中午重播“枪炮”(GunSmoke),重温他们的童年时光。这部电视剧讲述了一位法警的钢铁般的勇气和柯尔特左轮手枪维持了美国西部的和平。22c世界播


“That’s what formed this nation!,” said Rick Warren, a 65-year-old in blue jeans and a T-shirt, only partially joking. “’Gunsmoke’ and John Wayne!” 22c世界播

65岁的里克·沃伦(Rick Warren)穿着蓝色牛仔裤和T恤,他半开玩笑地说:“这就是这个国家的形成!”“‘枪炮’和约翰·韦恩!”22c世界播


This is a deeply conservative part of the nation — 77 percent of the county voted for President Donald Trump in the 2016 elections; just 19 percent went for Hillary Clinton. The Gunsmoke Club reflects that. They are pro-Trump, anti-abortion, virulently against gun control and distrust the coronavirus rules and the media (though after warming up they were very welcoming to us). 22c世界播

这是美国极其保守的地区-在2016年的选举中,77%的人把票投给了唐纳德·特朗普总统;只有19%的人投了希拉里·克林顿的票。枪炮俱乐部反映了这一点。他们支持特朗普,反对堕胎,强烈反对枪支管制,不信任冠状病毒规则和媒体(尽管热身后他们非常欢迎我们)。22c世界播


For them, race has become an issue twisted far beyond proportion, a cudgel for hypocritical liberals. 22c世界播

对他们来说,种族已经成为一个远远超出比例的问题,成为虚伪自由派的大棒。22c世界播


“Really, we got a good country, and I think there is probably some racism going on. But I try not to be racist,” Stevens, the retired prison guard, said in his gentle drawl about this year’s protests over racial injustice. “I think they’re overreacting a little bit.” 22c世界播

“真的,我们有一个很好的国家,我认为可能有一些种族主义正在发生。但我尽量不做种族主义者,“退休狱警史蒂文斯在谈到今年针对种族不公正的抗议活动时语气温和而拖沓。“我认为他们有点反应过度了。”22c世界播


Warren is more blunt, pounding his fist on a particle-board table when he gets really angry. 22c世界播

沃伦更直言不讳,当他真的生气的时候,他会用拳头猛击粒子板桌子。22c世界播


“I’ve had Black friends. I’ve had Black babysitters. I had Black people who took care of me through my childhood,” he said. But the easygoing race relations of his youth were lost, he said, when President Lyndon Johnson, who pushed through some of the most important civil rights legislation of the 20th century, “came along and turned it into a bunch of racial bullshit!” 22c世界播

“我有过黑人朋友。我请过黑人保姆。我从小就有黑人照顾我,“他说。但他说,当推动通过了20世纪一些最重要的民权立法的林登·约翰逊(Lyndon Johnson)总统“出现,把它变成了一堆种族废话”时,他年轻时随和的种族关系就消失了!22c世界播


Then there’s former President Barack Obama, who speaks regularly about his white mother from Kansas and his Black father from Kenya, but who personally identifies as Black. 22c世界播

还有前总统巴拉克·奥巴马(Barack Obama),他经常谈到他来自堪萨斯州的白人母亲和来自肯尼亚的黑人父亲,但他个人认为自己是黑人。22c世界播


“He claims to be Black!” Warren said, pounding the table. “What the hell happened to his white mama?” 22c世界播

“他自称是黑人!”沃伦一边说,一边拍打着桌子。“他那该死的白人妈妈怎么了?”22c世界播


Another of the men later pulls back his shirt to show that he now carries a .357-magnum revolver tucked into his jeans, worried about the unrest that occasionally flared during this year's racial protests. 22c世界播

另一名男子后来拉回衬衫,显示他现在牛仔裤里塞着一把.357马格南左轮手枪,担心今年种族抗议期间偶尔爆发的动乱。22c世界播


Vienna’s own violent history doesn’t come up until the men are asked about it. 22c世界播

直到这些人被问到这件事,维也纳自己的暴力历史才会浮出水面。22c世界播


Stevens was about 10 when it happened. 22c世界播

事情发生时,史蒂文斯大约10岁。22c世界播


“When they burned them out that time, a lot of them just packed their bags and went up north,” said Stevens, who said he hated to see Black classmates driven from town. 22c世界播

史蒂文斯说:“当他们那次烧毁他们的时候,他们中的许多人只是收拾行李去了北方。”他说,他不喜欢看到黑人同学开车离开镇上。22c世界播


“For a long time there were very very few Blacks in this county, and then they started easing back in,” he said. “We got a few more families in here now, but we get along good.” 22c世界播

“在很长一段时间里,这个县的黑人非常非常少,然后他们开始慢慢地回来,”他说。“我们现在这里多了几个家庭,但我们相处得很好。”22c世界播


How many sundown towns remain? It’s rarely clear anymore. Openly racist laws are now largely illegal, and few towns want the infamy of being known for keeping out Black people. Scholars often rely now on demographic data, looking carefully at towns that have tiny Black populations. 22c世界播

还剩下多少个日落小镇?现在很少再清楚了。现在,公开的种族主义法律在很大程度上是非法的,几乎没有城镇想要因为将黑人拒之门外而臭名昭著的恶名。学者们现在经常依赖人口统计数据,仔细研究黑人人口很少的城镇。22c世界播


Loewen, the historian, says the number is clearly dropping, categorizing many as “recovering” sundown towns, where organized resistance to Black residents has ended but the racial divide can remain wide. Vienna would almost certainly fall into that category. 22c世界播

历史学家洛文说,这一数字显然在下降,他将许多人归类为“正在恢复的”日落城镇,在那里,对黑人居民的有组织抵抗已经结束,但种族分歧仍然很大。维也纳几乎肯定会属于这一类。22c世界播


Dexter sees hope in the dozens of former sundown towns that have held racial justice protests, from the infamous Illinois sundown town of Anna to Hopewell, Michigan, once home to a powerful Ku Klux Klan leader, which Black Detroit residents have long avoided. 22c世界播

德克斯特在数十个举行过种族正义抗议的前日落城镇看到了希望,从臭名昭著的伊利诺伊州日落小镇安娜到密歇根州霍普韦尔,那里曾经是权势强大的三K党(Ku Klux Klan)领导人的所在地,底特律黑人居民长期以来一直回避这一点。22c世界播


“I do think that there are lots of changes, and progress, being made today. Mostly I think that comes from people talking about the issue,” he said. “People didn’t want to talk about it before.” 22c世界播

他说:“我认为今天有很多改变和进步。我认为这主要是因为人们在谈论这个问题。“他说。“人们以前不想谈论这件事。”22c世界播


But while legal protections and changing mores have lessened the power of sundown towns, there are still plenty of them with well-known racist histories. Sometimes, towns know their violent past keeps racial minorities away. Sometimes, that history makes those minorities avoid them. 22c世界播

但是,尽管法律保护和不断变化的习俗削弱了日落小镇的力量,但仍然有大量的日落小镇有着众所周知的种族主义历史。有时,城镇知道他们的暴力历史将少数族裔拒之门外。有时,这段历史会让这些少数民族避开他们。22c世界播


“It’s not by law” that Black people remain a tiny population in many towns, Dexter said. “It’s by tradition.” 22c世界播

德克斯特说,在许多城镇,黑人仍然是一个很小的人口,这“不是法律规定的”。“这是传统。”22c世界播


Even in Vienna things are changing. 22c世界播

即使在维也纳,情况也在发生变化。22c世界播


But ever so slowly. 22c世界播

但是非常缓慢。22c世界播


In 2010, the U.S. census said there were 1,434 people in Vienna. Sixteen of them were Black. 22c世界播

2010年,美国人口普查显示,维也纳有1434人。其中16个是黑人。22c世界播

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