拜登的过渡和内阁人选:下一步会发生什么

2020-11-25 08:14

Biden’s Transition and Cabinet Picks: What Happens Next qRp世界播

拜登的过渡和内阁人选:下一步会发生什么qRp世界播


暂无qRp世界播


The General Services Administration has ascertained that President-elect Joe Biden was the apparent winner of the Nov. 3 presidential election, marking the start of the formal transition process. qRp世界播

总务署(General Services Administration)已经确定,当选总统乔·拜登(Joe Biden)在11月3日的总统选举中明显获胜,标志着正式过渡进程的开始。qRp世界播


The impact will be felt immediately: Mr. Biden’s team now has access to the resources of the federal government, including cybersecurity assistance, FBI background checks for prospective nominees, access to departments and agencies and the ability to see classified information, and more intelligence sharing. qRp世界播

影响将立即显现:拜登的团队现在可以获得联邦政府的资源,包括网络安全援助、对潜在提名人的联邦调查局背景调查、进入各部门和机构的权限、查看机密信息的能力,以及更多的情报共享。qRp世界播


Here’s what is expected to happen next as Mr. Biden inches closer to taking the oath of office on Jan. 20. qRp世界播

以下是拜登即将于1月20日宣誓就职时预计会发生的事情。qRp世界播


The GSA’s announcement allows the Biden team access to all the federal government’s departments and agencies. Mr. Biden has teams of people, divided by policy area, who will meet with designated agency and departmental officials to get them up to speed. qRp世界播

GSA的声明允许拜登团队接触到联邦政府的所有部门和机构。拜登安排了按政策领域划分的团队,他们将与指定的机构和部门官员会面,让他们了解最新情况。qRp世界播


The work is particularly important in areas where the Biden administration can’t afford to miss a beat once it takes over, such as the coronavirus-vaccine development and distribution effort. Health and Human Services Secretary Alex Azar said Tuesday he would be sharing materials with the Biden team immediately. qRp世界播

这项工作在拜登政府上台后一刻也不能错过的领域尤为重要,比如冠状病毒疫苗的研发和分销工作。卫生与公共服务部部长亚历克斯·阿扎尔(Alex Azar)周二表示,他将立即与拜登团队分享材料。qRp世界播


A smooth transition depends in part on how much an outgoing administration decides to cooperate with the incoming team. White House Chief of Staff Mark Meadows, in a memo Monday, warned staff not to speak with the Biden team unless they have been explicitly designated as a point of contact, but he said the White House would “ensure a smooth transfer of power.” qRp世界播

平稳过渡在一定程度上取决于即将离任的政府在多大程度上决定与新上任的团队合作。白宫幕僚长马克·梅多斯星期一在一份备忘录中警告工作人员不要与拜登团队交谈,除非他们被明确指定为一个联络点。但他说,白宫将“确保权力的顺利交接”。qRp世界播


The transition’s policy-area teams are vetting possible nominees for cabinet posts that require Senate confirmation as well as other appointments that don’t require lawmakers’ support. A good deal of backchanneling and lobbying typically goes on now, when potential nominees leverage their experience and networks to get face time with the transition team and advocate for themselves or others. qRp世界播

过渡时期的政策领域团队正在审查需要参议院确认的内阁职位的可能提名,以及其他不需要议员支持的任命。现在,当潜在的提名人利用自己的经验和人脉与过渡团队面对面并为自己或他人辩护时,大量的暗箱操作和游说活动通常会继续进行。qRp世界播


In his early picks, Mr. Biden is leaning on people who have extensive government experience and, in many cases, a history of working with him. But for lower-level jobs, applicants are invited to submit applications and resumes on the transition team’s website, buildbackbetter.gov. That was a dot-com address until Monday, when the GSA granted Mr. Biden access to the dot-gov web domain. qRp世界播

在最初的选择中,拜登依靠的是那些有丰富政府经验的人,在很多情况下,还有与他共事的历史。但对于级别较低的职位,申请者被邀请在过渡团队的网站Buildbackbetter.gov上提交申请和简历。这是一个网站地址,直到周一,GSA允许拜登访问.com-gov网站域名。qRp世界播


His selections include nominating Alejandro Mayorkas as homeland security secretary, Antony Blinken as secretary of state and Avril Haines as director of national intelligence. He plans to nominate Janet Yellen as Treasury secretary. qRp世界播

他的人选包括提名亚历杭德罗·马约卡斯(Alejandro Mayorkas)担任国土安全部部长,安东尼·布林肯(Antony Blinken)担任国务卿,艾薇儿·海恩斯(Avril Haines)担任国家情报总监。他计划提名珍妮特·耶伦(Janet Yellen)担任财政部长。qRp世界播


Not all of President Trump’s political appointees will be out the door on Jan. 20. Political appointees at executive departments—such as State, Treasury and Defense—typically depart, but appointees at regulatory agencies are more insulated and can stay in office for the duration of the term designated by the Senate when they were confirmed. qRp世界播

并不是所有特朗普总统任命的政治官员都会在1月20日离任。国务院、财政部和国防等行政部门的政治任命人员通常会离职,但监管机构的任命人员则更不受影响,在他们得到确认后,他们可以在参议院指定的任期内留任。qRp世界播


Securities and Exchange Commission Chairman Jay Clayton will be stepping down at the end of this year to make way for a Biden appointee. But other Senate-confirmed members of the SEC and other agencies like the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission or the Federal Election Commission are under no obligation to leave office, especially because many agencies are set up as commissions split between Democratic and Republican members. qRp世界播

美国证券交易委员会(Securities and Exchange Commission,简称SEC)主席杰伊·克莱顿(Jay Clayton)将于今年年底卸任,为拜登任命的人让路。但SEC的其他参议院确认成员以及联邦能源管理委员会(Federal Energy Regulatory Commission)或联邦选举委员会(Federal Options Commission)等其他机构没有离职的义务,特别是因为许多机构的成立是由民主党和共和党成员组成的委员会。qRp世界播


Some of the confirmation hearings are expected to begin while Mr. Trump is still president, allowing Mr. Biden to start with some of his team installed on his first day in office. Most recent presidents began their terms with at least a couple of confirmed cabinet members. Mr. Trump began his term with confirmed defense and homeland security secretaries, both approved with votes on Inauguration Day. qRp世界播

一些确认听证会预计将在特朗普仍担任总统期间开始,这样拜登就可以在上任第一天就安排好他的一些团队。最近的大多数总统在任期开始时至少有几名得到确认的内阁成员。特朗普在任期开始时确认了国防部长和国土安全部部长的身份,两人都在就职日投票通过了这两位部长的任命。qRp世界播


President Barack Obama had six cabinet members approved on Inauguration Day, while President George W. Bush had seven. It can take months for the full cabinet to be filled, however: Mr. Trump didn’t have his full initial cabinet approved until April 2017. qRp世界播

美国总统巴拉克·奥巴马(Barack Obama)在就职日当天批准了6名内阁成员,而乔治·W·布什(George W.Bush)总统有7名。然而,可能需要几个月的时间才能组成完整的内阁:特朗普直到2017年4月才批准了他的整个初始内阁。qRp世界播


Rocky confirmation hearings or scandals can also delay the process. Mr. Obama needed to nominate three different commerce secretaries before one was confirmed, while Mr. Trump had his first pick for labor secretary drop out. qRp世界播

摇摆不定的确认听证会或丑闻也可能推迟这一过程。奥巴马需要提名三名不同的商务部长,其中一名才能得到确认,而特朗普的第一个劳工部长人选已经退出。qRp世界播


Many of Mr. Trump’s most important hires are unaffected by the transition to a new administration. Federal Reserve Chairman Jerome Powell can be fired only for cause and is virtually guaranteed to stay on until at least the end of his term in 2022. Federal Bureau of Investigation directors are appointed to 10-year terms to distance them from political winds, but Mr. Trump’s firing of then-Director James Comey in May 2017 broke with that precedent. Mr. Biden hasn’t said whether he wants to keep current Director Christopher Wrayin the post. qRp世界播

特朗普的许多最重要的人事不受新政府过渡的影响。美联储(Fed)主席杰罗姆·鲍威尔(Jerome Powell)只有在有理由的情况下才能被解雇,而且几乎可以保证他至少会留任到2022年任期结束。联邦调查局(FBI)局长的任期为10年,以使他们与政治风向保持距离,但特朗普在2017年5月解雇时任局长詹姆斯·科米(James Comey)打破了这一先例。拜登还没有说他是否想让现任董事克里斯托弗·莱恩(Christopher Wrain)留任。qRp世界播


Federal judges, perhaps Mr. Trump’s most lasting legacy, are appointed for life in most cases. qRp世界播

联邦法官可能是特朗普留下的最持久的遗产,在大多数情况下都是终身任命的。qRp世界播


The many minor boards and commissions that make up far-flung reaches of the federal government also will retain their current makeup in most cases, and Mr. Biden will fill those positions as they become vacant. qRp世界播

在大多数情况下,组成联邦政府各个部门的许多次要委员会和委员会也将保留目前的构成,拜登将在这些职位空缺时填补这些职位。qRp世界播

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