濒危动物被塑料缠绕成美国海洋之谜--研究

2020-11-19 18:05

Endangered animals get entangled in plastics that riddle US oceans – study CHp世界播

濒危动物被塑料缠绕成美国海洋之谜--研究CHp世界播


Endangered marine mammals and sea turtles are routinely being entangled in or are swallowing pieces of plastic that now riddle the oceans off US coastlines, a new report has found. CHp世界播

一份新的报告发现,濒临灭绝的海洋哺乳动物和海龟经常被塑料缠绕在一起,或者正在吞噬塑料碎片,这些塑料现在成了美国海岸线上的谜团。CHp世界播


The plastic-induced toll stretches from Florida, where a manatee was found dead with a stomach filled with plastic bags and straws, to Virginia where a sei whale died after swallowing a DVD case causing stomach lacerations, to California, where a juvenile elephant seal was discovered with a packing strap wrapped around its neck. In South Carolina, a loggerhead sea turtle defecated out almost 60 pieces of plastic while being rehabilitated. CHp世界播

塑料造成的死亡人数从佛罗里达州(一头海牛被发现死亡,胃里装满了塑料袋和吸管)到弗吉尼亚州(一头须鲸吞下一个DVD盒导致胃撕裂后死亡),再到加利福尼亚州(一只幼年象海豹被发现脖子上缠着一条包装带)。在南卡罗来纳州,一只黑头海龟在康复过程中排出了近60块塑料。CHp世界播


In total there is evidence of more than 1,800 marine animals from 40 species suffering from contact with plastics over the past decade, according to the first formal tally drawn from government and NGO data. Some examples of this phenomenon become well known – such as the whale that washed up with 40kg of plastic in its stomach last year – but the true toll is certainly far higher, with most entanglements unseen by humans. CHp世界播

根据来自政府和非政府组织数据的首次正式统计,在过去十年中,总共有来自40个物种的1800多种海洋动物遭受塑料接触的证据。这种现象的一些例子变得广为人知--比如去年鲸鱼肚子里装着40公斤塑料被冲上岸--但真实的死亡人数肯定要高得多,因为大多数纠缠都是人类看不到的。CHp世界播


“We may never know the true number but the details we do have are heartbreaking,” said Kimberly Warner, a senior scientist at Oceana, the conservation organization that collated the report. “The plastic is everywhere, even within deep-diving animals that you rarely see, and it is getting worse.” CHp世界播

整理这份报告的海洋保护组织的资深科学家金伯利·华纳(Kimberly Warner)说:“我们可能永远不会知道真实的数字,但我们掌握的细节令人心碎。”“塑料无处不在,甚至在你很少看到的深潜水动物体内也是如此,而且情况还在恶化。”CHp世界播


Animals can inadvertently swallow floating pieces of plastic while feeding or may even mistake the pieces for food. The Oceana report found that plastic bags, balloons, recreational fishing line, plastic sheeting and food wrappers were the most commonly ingested items, causing internal injuries or hampering the ability of the animals to feed. CHp世界播

动物在进食时可能会不经意地吞下漂浮的塑料片,甚至可能把这些塑料片误认为是食物。Ocean ana的报告发现,塑料袋、气球、休闲钓鱼线、塑料布和食物包装纸是最常见的被摄入的物品,会导致内伤或阻碍动物的进食能力。CHp世界播


Other pieces of plastic can become wrapped around necks, fins or flippers, causing deep injuries or hampering movement. In Hawaii, a monk seal was found with a plastic water bottle stuck on its snout while in California a food wrapper was discovered lodged in the esophagus of a dolphin. This blight could prove a material threat to the viability of some species, with the Oceana report finding that 88% of creatures recorded with plastic on or in them are from species listed as threatened or endangered by the US. CHp世界播

其他塑料片可能会缠绕在脖子、鳍或鳍状物上,造成严重伤害或妨碍行动。在夏威夷,一只僧海豹被发现鼻子上粘着一个塑料水瓶,而在加利福尼亚州,一只海豚的食道里发现了一个食物包装袋。这种枯萎病可能会对一些物种的生存构成实质性威胁,海洋管理局的报告发现,在记录的塑料制品或塑料制品中,88%的生物来自被美国列为濒危或濒危物种的物种。CHp世界播


Around 11m tonnes of plastic flow into the oceans a year, with this amount set to nearly triple to 29m tonnes a year by 2040 – the equivalent of 50kg for each meter of coastline in the world – if current trends continue. The plastic often breaks down into tiny pieces and is now ubiquitous in our oceans, found from the deepest reaches of the marine world to even sea ice in the Arctic. CHp世界播

每年流入海洋的塑料约为1100万吨,如果目前的趋势继续下去,到2040年,这一数字将增加近两倍,达到每年2900万吨-相当于世界每米海岸线50公斤。这种塑料经常分解成小块,现在在我们的海洋中无处不在,从海洋世界的最深处到北极的海冰都可以找到。CHp世界播


The Trump administration has blamed countries such as China and Vietnam for pumping large amounts of plastic into the seas but research has suggested the US is the planet’s third largest contributor to marine plastic pollution. United Nations talks were recently held on a new global treaty to tackle plastic pollution but without any signal of support from the US or UK, two of the largest per-capita waste producers in the world. CHp世界播

特朗普政府指责中国和越南等国向海洋排放了大量塑料,但研究表明,美国是地球上第三大海洋塑料污染贡献者。联合国最近就一项新的全球条约举行了谈判,以解决塑料污染问题,但没有得到世界上两个最大的人均废物产生国美国或英国的任何支持信号。CHp世界播


Some jurisdictions within the US have moved to phase out plastic straws or bags – New York is now finally enforcing a ban on plastic bags after a pandemic-related delay – but advocates are hoping to push Joe Biden’s incoming administration to more aggressive national action. CHp世界播

美国国内的一些司法管辖区已采取行动,逐步淘汰塑料吸管或塑料袋--在与疫情相关的延迟之后,纽约州现在终于开始实施塑料袋禁令--但倡导者希望推动乔·拜登(Joe Biden)即将上任的政府采取更积极的全国性行动。CHp世界播


“We need to quit blaming other countries and pass laws limiting the use of single-use plastics,” said Warner. “I know Biden is very concerned about climate change and plastic is a huge supplier of greenhouse gases. I’m hoping the US will finally come to the party and do something about this.” CHp世界播

华纳说:“我们需要停止指责其他国家,通过法律限制一次性塑料的使用。”我知道拜登非常关注气候变化,塑料是温室气体的巨大供应者。我希望美国最终能来参加这个派对,并为此做点什么。“CHp世界播

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