研究发现,牛津的Covid疫苗能激发“强健”的免疫反应

2020-11-19 16:02

Another Covid vaccine breakthrough as study confirms Oxford's jab is 'safe and provokes a robust immune response' in over-60s gIO世界播

Covid疫苗又一次突破,研究证实牛津的疫苗接种是安全的,并在60多岁的人中激发了强大的免疫反应。gIO世界播


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Oxford University's coronavirus vaccine triggers a 'robust' response from the immune system and appears to work in older people, a study revealed today. gIO世界播

今天的一项研究显示,牛津大学的冠状病毒疫苗能引发免疫系统的“强烈”反应,似乎对老年人有效。gIO世界播


Scientists behind the project this morning published the results of an early trial of the jab, which found it created strong signs of immunity in 99 per cent of people. gIO世界播

该项目背后的科学家今天上午公布了对疫苗的早期试验结果,结果发现,它在99%的人中产生了强烈的免疫力迹象。gIO世界播


The second-phase study included 560 people, most of whom were white and British, and showed that people across all age groups seemed to react equally well to the jab. It adds to data published in July suggesting it would work safely for under-55s. gIO世界播

第二阶段的研究包括560人,其中大部分是白人和英国人,研究表明,所有年龄段的人似乎对注射疫苗的反应都一样好。它增加了7月份发布的数据,表明它对55岁以下的人来说是安全的。gIO世界播


It marks another breakthrough in the race to develop a vaccine to prevent Covid-19, after jabs made by Moderna and Pfizer and BioNTech were both revealed to be around 95 per cent effective within the past week. gIO世界播

这标志着在开发预防新冠肺炎的疫苗的竞赛中取得了又一突破,在过去一周里,现代制药、辉瑞和生物技术公司生产的疫苗都被证明有效率在95%左右。gIO世界播


Oxford's results are from an earlier stage of testing so cannot estimate how well the vaccine protects against Covid, but are still a positive step. Detailed results about how well it works are expected within weeks, the university said. gIO世界播

牛津大学的研究结果来自早期测试阶段,因此无法评估疫苗对Covid的保护效果,但仍是积极的一步。该大学表示,关于它的工作效果的详细结果预计将在几周内公布。gIO世界播


The research showed that people in all age groups developed antibodies – virus-destroying substances made by the immune system – within 28 days of their first dose of the vaccine, and these were boosted further after the second dose. gIO世界播

研究表明,所有年龄段的人在第一剂疫苗接种后的28天内都会产生抗体--由免疫系统产生的病毒破坏物质--这些抗体在第二剂疫苗接种后会进一步增强。gIO世界播


It showed that the vaccine caused more side effects than a fake jab but that these were 'mild' and more common in young people than older participants. gIO世界播

研究表明,疫苗比假注射引起更多的副作用,但这些副作用是“温和的”,在年轻人中比年长的参与者更常见。gIO世界播


Within the first week after having the injection more than eight out of 10 under-55s said their arm hurt and and they later experienced tiredness, muscle aches or headaches. gIO世界播

在注射后的第一周内,超过八成的55岁以下的年轻人说他们的手臂受伤了,后来他们经历了疲劳、肌肉疼痛或头痛。gIO世界播


Britain has pre-ordered 100million doses of Oxford's jab, which is being made with pharmaceutical firm AstraZeneca, so if it works and can be manufactured fast enough it could be used to protect the majority of the UK's population. gIO世界播

英国已经预购了1亿剂牛津疫苗,该疫苗是与阿斯利康制药公司合作生产的,因此,如果它起作用,而且生产速度足够快,就可以用来保护英国的大多数人口。gIO世界播


The jab could cost as little as 2 per dose, which makes it significantly cheaper than the 15-28 for Pfizer and Moderna's vaccines, which will cost the UK tens of millions of pounds. gIO世界播

每剂疫苗的成本可能只有2 GB,这使得它比辉瑞(Pfizer)和莫德纳(Modern Na)疫苗的GB 15-28要便宜得多,后者将花费英国数千万英镑。gIO世界播


Scientists today described the news as 'promising' and 'positive', adding that the UK's order could be big enough to reach herd immunity if the vaccine comes good. gIO世界播

科学家们今天将这一消息描述为“有希望的”和“积极的”,并补充说,如果疫苗效果良好,英国的订单可能足够大,足以达到群体免疫力。gIO世界播


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Oxford University scientists published the results of their second-phase trial of the jab in medical journal The Lancet this morning, showing that it appears to work in adults of all ages gIO世界播

牛津大学的科学家今天上午在医学杂志《柳叶刀》上发表了注射疫苗的第二阶段试验结果,显示该疫苗似乎对所有年龄段的成年人都有效gIO世界播


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Although the early phases of Oxford's trial have not tested the vaccine on many people in non-white groups or people with serious health conditions, a bigger study has recruited people from all over the world to check the jab works on everyone (Pictured: A woman in Brazil receives a dose of the vaccine) gIO世界播

尽管牛津大学试验的早期阶段没有在非白人群体或有严重健康状况的人身上测试疫苗,但一项规模更大的研究已经从世界各地招募了人来检查疫苗对每个人的效果(如图:巴西一名妇女接种了一剂疫苗)gIO世界播


Oxford published the results from tests of its vaccine, namedChAdOx1 nCov-2019, in UK medical journal The Lancet today. gIO世界播

牛津大学今天在英国医学杂志《柳叶刀》上发表了名为ChAdOx1 NCoV-2019的疫苗测试结果。gIO世界播


Volunteers in the trial demonstrated similar immune responses across all three age groups – they had been split into 18-55, 56 to 69, and 70-plus. gIO世界播

试验中的志愿者在所有三个年龄段都表现出了相似的免疫反应--他们被分成18-55岁、56-69岁和70岁以上三个年龄段。gIO世界播


Observations of the 560 adults – including 240 over the age of 70 – found the vaccine was actually better tolerated and caused fewer side effects in older people. gIO世界播

对560名成年人(包括240名70岁以上的老年人)的观察发现,疫苗实际上耐受性更好,在老年人中引起的副作用更少。gIO世界播


The news that the jab appears to be safe and effective for older people is a huge step forward for the project, because this is the group most at risk of severe Covid-19 and death. gIO世界播

注射疫苗似乎对老年人安全有效的消息是该项目向前迈出的一大步,因为这是最有可能导致严重新冠肺炎和死亡的群体。gIO世界播


Health officials in the UK have suggested that vaccines for younger adults and children are lower priority, and that vaccinating the over-50s and people with serious health conditions would cover the vast majority of people likely to die. gIO世界播

英国卫生官员表示,针对年轻人和儿童的疫苗不是那么优先,给50岁以上的人和健康状况严重的人接种疫苗将覆盖绝大多数可能死亡的人。gIO世界播


Professor Deborah Dunn-Walters, chair of the British Society for Immunology, described the announcement as 'positive'. gIO世界播

英国免疫学会主席黛博拉·邓恩-沃尔特斯教授形容这一声明是“积极的”。gIO世界播


She said: 'While this is an ongoing study, the initial results are encouraging. gIO世界播

她说:“虽然这是一项正在进行的研究,但初步结果令人鼓舞。”gIO世界播


'The vaccine appears to be well tolerated in all age groups, with older individuals reporting fewer side-effects.' gIO世界播

“所有年龄段的人似乎都对疫苗有很好的耐受性,年龄较大的人报告的副作用较少。”gIO世界播


The Faculty of Pharmaceutical Medicine's Dr Gillies O'Bryan-Tear explained: 'The ageing of the immune system in older people can lead to lower efficacy of vaccines. gIO世界播

药学院的吉利斯·奥布莱恩-特雷尔博士解释说:“老年人免疫系统的老化会导致疫苗效力降低。”gIO世界播


'This is especially important as Covid has much higher lethality in older people. gIO世界播

“这一点尤其重要,因为Covid对老年人的致死率要高得多。”gIO世界播


'One clue to this from the current study is that older people reacted less to the vaccine – fewer fevers, less injection site pain and swelling – but encouragingly, the immune responses in the older patients were indistinguishable from those in younger patients. gIO世界播

“目前的研究提供的一个线索是,老年人对疫苗的反应较少--发烧较少,注射部位疼痛和肿胀也较少--但令人鼓舞的是,老年人的免疫反应与年轻患者没有什么区别。”gIO世界播


'This suggests, but does not prove, that the protection against the illness will be similar in the elderly and the young.' gIO世界播

“这表明,但并不能证明,老年人和年轻人对这种疾病的保护是相似的。”gIO世界播


And Dr Michael Tildesley, a Warwick University epidemiologist who advises SAGE, said the vaccine could be a 'game changer'. gIO世界播

为Sage提供建议的华威大学流行病学家迈克尔·蒂尔德斯利博士说,疫苗可能会改变游戏规则。gIO世界播


He told BBC Breakfast the number of doses acquired by the Government could push the UK towards 'that magic herd immunity' gIO世界播

他在接受BBC早餐会采访时表示,政府获得的疫苗数量可能会将英国推向“神奇的群体免疫力”。gIO世界播


Successfully protecting older people was the 'really key thing', he said. gIO世界播

他说,成功地保护老年人是“真正关键的事情”。gIO世界播


Volunteers in the study were split into two groups and either received two doses of the real vaccine candidate or a placebo meningitis vaccine. gIO世界播

研究中的志愿者被分成两组,要么接受两剂真正的候选疫苗,要么接受安慰剂脑膜炎疫苗。gIO世界播


The placebo is given so scientists can be sure that any side effects people report are actually caused by the vaccine and not just the injection itself or psychological. gIO世界播

给予安慰剂是为了让科学家可以确定,人们报告的任何副作用实际上都是由疫苗引起的,而不仅仅是注射本身或心理上的原因。gIO世界播


No serious health problems related to the vaccine were seen in any of the participants, the researchers said. gIO世界播

研究人员说,在所有参与者身上都没有发现与疫苗相关的严重健康问题。gIO世界播


Dr Maheshi Ramasamy, investigator in the Oxford Vaccine Group and a consultant doctor, said: 'Older adults are a priority group for Covid-19 vaccination, because they are at increased risk of severe disease, but we know that they tend to have poorer vaccine responses. gIO世界播

牛津疫苗集团的研究员、顾问医生马赫希·拉马萨米博士说:“老年人是新冠肺炎疫苗的优先接种人群,因为他们患严重疾病的风险更高,但我们知道他们的疫苗反应往往较差。”gIO世界播


'We were pleased to see that our vaccine was not only well tolerated in older adults, but also stimulated similar immune responses to those seen in younger volunteers. gIO世界播

“我们很高兴地看到,我们的疫苗不仅在老年人中有很好的耐受性,而且还激发了与年轻志愿者相似的免疫反应。”gIO世界播


'The next step will be to see if this translates into protection from the disease itself.' gIO世界播

“下一步将是看看这是否会转化为对疾病本身的保护。”gIO世界播


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Oxford's vaccine is being produced by Cambridge-based pharmaceutical firm AstraZeneca gIO世界播

牛津的疫苗由总部位于剑桥的制药公司阿斯利康(AstraZeneca)生产gIO世界播


The vaccine is known as a recombinant viral vector vaccine and is made using a piece of the real coronavirus but not enough of it to cause illness. gIO世界播

这种疫苗被称为重组病毒载体疫苗,是用一块真正的冠状病毒制成的,但不足以致病。gIO世界播


In this case, scientists modified a cold virus found in monkeys to make it look like the coronavirus by attaching the 'spike' proteins found on the Covid virus to the outside. gIO世界播

在这种情况下,科学家修改了一种在猴子身上发现的感冒病毒,使其看起来像冠状病毒,方法是将Covid病毒上发现的“尖峰”蛋白附着在外面。gIO世界播


This means that when the vaccine is injected, the spikes make the body think it is seeing the coronavirus and the immune system attacks it. gIO世界播

这意味着,当注射疫苗时,尖峰会让身体认为它看到了冠状病毒,免疫系统就会攻击它。gIO世界播


In the process it develops an understanding and memory of how to fight off any virus that has the same spikes on the outside, so if it encounters the coronavirus for real it should know immediately how to destroy it before it can cause Covid-19. gIO世界播

在这个过程中,它形成了一种理解和记忆,知道如何击退任何外部有相同刺突的病毒,所以如果它真的遇到了冠状病毒,它应该立即知道如何摧毁它,才能导致新冠肺炎。gIO世界播


Oxford's announcement comes after late-stage clinical trial results were reported by pharma firms Moderna and Pfizer and BioNTech this week. gIO世界播

牛津大学的声明是在制药公司Modna、辉瑞和BioNTech本周报告了晚期临床试验结果之后发布的。gIO世界播


Pfizer and BioNTech yesterday said the final results of their clinical trial suggested their vaccine was 95 per cent effective, just days after Moderna claimed its own jab showed efficacy of 94.5 per cent. gIO世界播

辉瑞(Pfizer)和BioNTech昨日表示,他们的临床试验的最终结果表明,他们的疫苗有效率为95%。就在几天前,现代声称自己的疫苗显示有效率为94.5%。gIO世界播


The UK is now in the process of getting these through regulatory approval and will buy millions of doses if they're approved. gIO世界播

英国目前正在通过监管部门的批准,如果获得批准,将购买数百万剂。gIO世界播


Up to five million people could be vaccinated with Pfizer's jab before the end of the year if the process goes smoothly. gIO世界播

如果这一过程进展顺利,年底前可能会有多达500万人接种辉瑞疫苗。gIO世界播


Oxford's vaccine is expected to be considerably cheaper than either of those, has been ordered in huge quantities and will be easier to store and deliver. gIO世界播

牛津的疫苗预计将比这两种疫苗都便宜得多,已经被大量订购,而且更容易储存和运送。gIO世界播


While Moderna's is expected to cost between 24 and 28 per dose, and Pfizer's around 15 per dose, Oxford's could cost just 2.23. gIO世界播

莫德纳的每剂预计成本在24 GB到28 GB之间,辉瑞的每剂成本约为15 GB,而牛津的价格可能只有2.23 GB。gIO世界播


Manufacturer AstraZeneca said it would produce the first batch of vaccines 'at cost', meaning it won't profit from them, although it could up the price in the future. gIO世界播

制造商阿斯利康(AstraZeneca)表示,它将“以成本价”生产第一批疫苗,这意味着它不会从这些疫苗中获利,尽管未来可能会提高价格。gIO世界播


Storage and transport of Oxford's vaccine is likely to be cheaper, too, with previous versions of the same technology suitable for storing at room temperatures. gIO世界播

牛津疫苗的储存和运输可能也会更便宜,因为同一技术的以前版本适合在室温下储存。gIO世界播


Pfizer and Moderna both say their vaccines must be frozen during transport and then kept cold up until the point they're used in a clinic. gIO世界播

辉瑞和摩德纳都表示,他们的疫苗必须在运输过程中冷冻,然后保持冷藏,直到它们在诊所使用。gIO世界播


Pfizer's will be particularly challenging because it has to be kept at an ultra-cold -70°C (-94°F) throughout the supply chain, which requires specialist freezers. gIO世界播

辉瑞的将特别具有挑战性,因为它必须在整个供应链中保持在零下70摄氏度(-94华氏度)的超低温,这需要专业的冰柜。gIO世界播


Moderna's is less difficult because it only needs to be frozen during transport, at a temperature that normal freezers are capable of reaching, and can then be kept in a fridge. gIO世界播

现代冰激凌的难度较小,因为它只需要在运输过程中冷冻,温度达到普通冰柜能够达到的温度,然后就可以保存在冰箱里。gIO世界播


Oxford's can be kept stable in temperatures between 2°C and 8°C, meanwhile, meaning it could be kept in a standard fridge at all times so no new equipment would need to be bought. gIO世界播

同时,牛津的冰箱可以在2摄氏度到8摄氏度的温度下保持稳定,这意味着它可以一直保存在标准的冰箱里,这样就不需要购买新的设备了。gIO世界播


Today's Lancet study also found the vaccine, being developed with AstraZeneca, was less likely to cause local reactions at the injection site and symptoms on the day of vaccination in older adults than in the younger group. gIO世界播

今天的柳叶刀研究还发现,与阿斯利康共同开发的疫苗,在接种当天对老年人造成注射部位局部反应和症状的可能性低于年轻人。gIO世界播


Adverse reactions were mild – injection-site pain and tenderness, fatigue, headache, feverishness and muscle pain – but more common than seen with the control vaccine. gIO世界播

不良反应是轻微的注射部位疼痛和压痛、疲劳、头痛、发烧和肌肉疼痛-但比对照疫苗更常见。gIO世界播


Thirteen serious adverse events occurred in the six months since the first dose was given, none of which were related to either study vaccine. gIO世界播

自第一剂疫苗接种以来的6个月内发生了13起严重不良事件,没有一起与两种研究疫苗有关。gIO世界播


The authors note some limitations to their study, including that the participants in the oldest age group had an average age of 73-74 and few underlying health conditions, so they may not be representative of the general older population, including those living in residential care settings or aged over 80. gIO世界播

作者指出,他们的研究存在一些局限性,包括年龄最大的参与者的平均年龄在73-74岁之间,而且几乎没有潜在的健康状况,因此他们可能不能代表普通老年人口,包括那些生活在养老院或80岁以上的人。gIO世界播


Phase three trials of the vaccine are ongoing, with early efficacy readings possible in the coming weeks. gIO世界播

疫苗的第三阶段试验正在进行中,可能在未来几周内公布早期疗效。gIO世界播


UK authorities have placed orders for 100million doses of the vaccine – enough to vaccinate most of the population – should it receive regulatory approval. gIO世界播

如果获得监管部门的批准,英国当局已经订购了1亿剂疫苗-足以为大多数人接种疫苗。gIO世界播


The Oxford findings come after Pfizer and BioNTech announced that their vaccine candidate has shown 95per cent efficacy, with a 94per cent effectiveness in those aged 65 and over. gIO世界播

牛津大学的研究结果发布之前,辉瑞和BioNTech宣布,他们的候选疫苗显示出95%的有效率,对65岁及以上人群的有效率为94%。gIO世界播


Forty million doses of that vaccine have been bought by the UK, with rollout potentially starting in early December if the jab is given the green light by regulators. gIO世界播

英国已经购买了4000万剂这种疫苗,如果监管机构批准接种,可能会在12月初开始推出。gIO世界播


Earlier in the week US biotech firm Moderna released data suggesting its vaccine is almost almost 95 per cent effective. gIO世界播

本周早些时候,美国生物技术公司现代发布的数据显示,其疫苗几乎95%有效。gIO世界播

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