新任五角大楼参谋长在特朗普下台前争先恐后地做出改变

2020-11-19 10:04

New Pentagon chief racing to make changes before Trump's exit 9sL世界播

新任五角大楼参谋长在特朗普下台前争先恐后地做出改变9sL世界播


Acting Defense Secretary Chris Miller has just 63 days to put his stamp on the Pentagon. 9sL世界播

代理国防部长克里斯·米勒(Chris Miller)只有63天的时间给五角大楼打上自己的印记。9sL世界播


Miller, a former Green Beret and counterterrorism professional, has been unexpectedly vaulted from midlevel National Security Council desk officer to Pentagon chief in under a year. Now, Miller is looking to use his position to make quick policy changes that incoming President Joe Biden is unlikely to overturn before the clock runs out on the Trump administration in late January. 9sL世界播

米勒曾是一名绿色贝雷帽和反恐专业人士,在不到一年的时间里,他出人意料地从国家安全委员会(National Security Council)的中层办公厅官员晋升为五角大楼司令。现在,米勒正寻求利用自己的职位迅速做出政策改变,即将上任的总统乔·拜登(Joe Biden)不太可能在1月底特朗普政府任期结束之前推翻这些改变。9sL世界播


In the nine days since President Donald Trump fired Defense Secretary Mark Esper and installed Miller in his place, Miller has shown he plans to be more than a caretaker, and instead has ordered changes that will have an outsize impact on the special operations community in particular. On Tuesday, he announced that the U.S. will rapidly draw down to 2,500 troops by Jan. 15 in both Afghanistan and Iraq, where commandos have increasingly borne the brunt of fighting in recent years. 9sL世界播

在唐纳德·特朗普(Donald Trump)总统解雇国防部长马克·埃斯佩尔(Mark Esper)并任命米勒(Miller)接替他的9天里,米勒已经表明,他计划不仅仅是一名看守,而是下令做出改变,这些改变将对特种部队产生特别大的影响。周二,他宣布,美国将在1月15日之前将阿富汗和伊拉克的驻军迅速减少到2500人,这两个国家的突击队近年来越来越多地在战斗中首当其冲。9sL世界播


The move, which Esper had resisted, put Miller at odds with Trump allies on Capitol Hill who worry that a hasty withdrawal based on a political calendar — Trump will leave office six days after the Jan. 15 drawdown deadline — could destabilize security conditions in Afghanistan. 9sL世界播

这一举动遭到了埃斯佩尔的抵制,这让米勒与特朗普在国会山的盟友产生了分歧,后者担心,基于政治日历的仓促撤军-特朗普将在1月15日的撤军最后期限六天后离任-可能会破坏阿富汗的安全状况。9sL世界播


But Biden is unlikely to reverse the drawdown. As vice president, Biden was the most senior dissenting voice against a surge in Afghanistan in the early years of Barack Obama's presidency, and has remained insistent over the past decade that he wants to bring American troop numbers there down to just a few thousand. 9sL世界播

但拜登不太可能扭转撤军的局面。作为副总统,拜登在奥巴马总统任期的早期是反对增兵阿富汗的最高级别的反对者,在过去的十年里,他一直坚称,他希望将驻阿美军人数减少到只有几千人。9sL世界播


“Miller may ultimately be successful in dancing through the raindrops — leaving a residual force for conducting [counterterrorism] missions and protecting the diplomatic community, while also fulfilling the overall parameters of Trump’s campaign promise,” said Marc Polymeropoulos, a retired CIA senior operations officer. 9sL世界播

退休的中央情报局(CIA)高级行动官员马克·波利莫普洛斯(Marc Polymeropoulos)表示:“米勒最终可能成功地在雨滴中起舞--留下一支执行(反恐)任务和保护外交界的剩余力量,同时也实现了特朗普竞选承诺的总体参数。”9sL世界播


Among Miller's top priorities is elevating the needs of America's elite special operations forces — Navy SEALs, Army Green Berets, Marine Raiders — even as the wars in the Middle East wind down and the Pentagon pivots to face competitors Russia and China, experts say. 9sL世界播

专家说,米勒的首要任务之一是提升美国精英特种部队-海豹突击队、陆军绿色贝雷帽、海军突击队-的需求,尽管中东战争已经结束,五角大楼正转向面对竞争对手俄罗斯和中国。9sL世界播


“If you look at the last close to decade of his career, [Miller] has been heavily involved in oversight of special operations,” said Luke Hartig, who worked on counterterrorism at the NSC in the Obama administration. “This is an opportunity for him to put his stamp on what he thinks that ought to look like.” 9sL世界播

曾在奥巴马政府国家安全委员会从事反恐工作的卢克·哈蒂格(Luke Hartig)说:“如果你看看他职业生涯的最后近十年,你会发现(米勒)一直在很大程度上参与监督特种部队的行动。”“对他来说,这是一个机会,可以在他认为应该是什么样子上打上自己的印记。”9sL世界播


On Wednesday, Miller elevated the top civilian Pentagon official overseeing special operations matters, establishing a direct reporting line to the defense secretary and putting the position roughly on par with the civilian leaders of the military branches in the Defense Department's hierarchy. Since 9/11, the special operations community has taken on enormous responsibilities but its civilian leaders have lacked the status and authorities of the services. 9sL世界播

周三,米勒提拔了五角大楼负责特种作战事务的最高文职官员,建立了直接向国防部长汇报的关系,并使这一职位大致与国防部各军事部门的文职领导人平起平坐。自9/11事件以来,特种部队承担了巨大的责任,但其文职领导人一直缺乏这些部队的地位和权力。9sL世界播


The change also means greater civilian oversight, something lawmakers have called for in recent years following the fatal ambush of U.S. special forces in Niger in 2017 and a series of scandals that have plagued the Navy SEAL community. 9sL世界播

这一变化还意味着加强民事监督,这是议员们近年来在2017年美国特种部队在尼日尔遭到致命伏击以及一系列丑闻困扰海豹突击队社区后一直呼吁的。9sL世界播


“Today with the strong support of President Trump we are forging the next chapter in the history of U.S. special operations forces and formalizing watershed reform,” Miller said during a ceremony at Fort Bragg, N.C. “Right now, we start the transition to provide greater civilian oversight of and critical advocacy for our special operators.” 9sL世界播

米勒在北卡罗来纳州布拉格堡举行的仪式上说:“今天,在特朗普总统的大力支持下,我们正在打造美国特种部队和正式分水岭改革历史的新篇章。”“现在,我们开始过渡,为我们的特殊运营商提供更多的民间监督和关键宣传。”9sL世界播


Visibility of special operations matters at top levels of the Pentagon has long been a source of tension between commandos and conventional forces, who must fight for limited resources within the Pentagon budget. Experts had expected that the former Green Beret would make elevating the issue a priority. 9sL世界播

长期以来,五角大楼高层对特种作战事务的能见度一直是突击队和常规部队之间紧张关系的根源,后者必须在五角大楼预算内争取有限的资源。专家们曾预计,这位前绿色贝雷帽将把提升这一问题作为优先事项。9sL世界播


“It does not surprise me that someone with a special operations background would want to do this as it has been a sore subject with many special operators,” said Arnold Punaro, retired Marine Corps major general and former staff director for the Senate Armed Services Committee. He noted that the civilian position — known as the assistant secretary of defense for special operations/low-intensity conflict, or SO/LIC — traditionally has to push through layers of bureaucracy to get anything done. 9sL世界播

退役海军陆战队少将、参议院军事委员会(Senate MilServices Committee)前参谋长阿诺德·普纳罗(Arnold Punaro)表示:“有特殊行动背景的人想要这么做,我并不感到意外,因为这一直是许多特种作战人员的棘手话题。”他指出,文职职位-被称为负责特殊行动/低强度冲突的助理国防部长,或SO/LIC-传统上必须通过层层官僚机构才能完成任何事情。9sL世界播


“From an organizational standpoint there are clearly advantages to being a direct report, especially to a secretary of defense that is of the same cloth,” Punaro said. 9sL世界播

普纳罗说:“从组织的角度来看,直接报告有很明显的优势,特别是对一位志同道合的国防部长来说。”9sL世界播


One senior defense official, speaking on condition of anonymity to discuss sensitive policy changes, noted that Congress has long been pushing the Pentagon to carry out the shift. 9sL世界播

一位不愿透露姓名的高级国防官员指出,国会长期以来一直在推动五角大楼进行这一转变。由于讨论的是敏感的政策变化,这位官员要求匿名。9sL世界播


“It puts the special operations community at the table, where they haven’t been, even though they are often tasked to carry out the missions,” the person said. “This is not controversial." 9sL世界播

这位知情人士说,“这让特种部队坐到了谈判桌前,尽管他们经常被派去执行任务,但他们并没有去过那里。”“这没有争议。”9sL世界播


However, the decision prompted concerns about what it means for America’s most elite military forces, with some worrying this could make it easier for Trump could launch covert operations against Iran over its nuclear program in his final days in office. The New York Times reported Monday that Trump had asked his advisers for options to take actions against Iran's main nuclear site in the coming weeks, which they talked him out of. 9sL世界播

然而,这一决定引发了人们对它对美国最精英军事力量意味着什么的担忧,一些人担心,这可能会让特朗普在任期的最后几天更容易就伊朗核项目对其发动秘密行动。《纽约时报》星期一报道说,特朗普曾向他的顾问询问在未来几周内对伊朗主要核设施采取行动的选项,他们说服他不要这么做。9sL世界播


It also raised questions about the rising influence of Ezra Cohen-Watnick — a close Trump ally and aide to former national security adviser Mike Flynn — after the White House ousted top DoD leaders and replaced them with loyalists. Cohen-Watnick has been acting in the role of top spec ops official since the summer and became the Pentagon's acting top intelligence official last week. 9sL世界播

这也引发了人们对埃兹拉·科恩-沃特尼克(Ezra Cohen-Watnick)影响力不断上升的质疑。埃兹拉·科恩-沃特尼克是特朗普的亲密盟友,也是前国家安全顾问迈克·弗林(Mike Flynn)的助手。此前,白宫罢免了国防部高级领导人,并用忠诚者取而代。科恩-沃特尼克自今年夏天以来一直担任最高规格行动官员,并于上周成为五角大楼代理最高情报官员。9sL世界播


Yet experts said the elevation would not have an operational impact. Rather, the shift is bureaucratic, strengthening the line between Special Operations Command and the defense secretary. 9sL世界播

然而,专家们表示,抬高海拔不会对运营产生影响。相反,这种转变是官僚作风,强化了特种作战司令部和国防部长之间的界限。9sL世界播


“Conspiratorial minded persons may think this change is about chain-of-command and putting the SecDef in direct control of [Special Operations Command] but that’s wrong — this move changes nothing operationally,” said Mark Jacobson, a former senior DoD official under Obama and historian of special operations now at Syracuse University's Maxwell School. 9sL世界播

奥巴马政府的前国防部高级官员、现供职于锡拉丘兹大学麦克斯韦尔学院(Maxwell School)的特种部队历史学家马克·雅各布森(Mark Jacobson)表示:“怀有阴谋论的人可能会认为,这一变化与指挥链有关,并将国防部部长直接控制在(特种作战司令部)手中,但这是错误的--此举在操作上没有任何改变。”9sL世界播


However, Jacobson expressed concern about the “timing” of the move and “Miller’s motivations.” 9sL世界播

然而,雅各布森对此举的“时机”和“米勒的动机”表示担忧。9sL世界播


“You don’t make a major bureaucratic change in an institution, particularly with regards to organizations dealing with sensitive and complex issues, without thinking through this,” he said. 9sL世界播

他说:“如果不经过深思熟虑,你就不会对一个机构进行重大的官僚改革,特别是对处理敏感和复杂问题的组织而言。”9sL世界播


The change was actually ordered by the fiscal 2017 National Defense Authorization Act — signed into law by President Barack Obama. While the role of special operations forces has grown in size and scope since the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks, the importance of the Pentagon civilian overseeing them has diminished, experts say. 9sL世界播

这一变化实际上是由2017财年国防授权法案下令的,该法案由巴拉克·奥巴马总统签署成为法律。自9·11事件以来,特种部队的作用在规模和范围上都有所增加。专家表示,在11起恐怖袭击事件中,五角大楼负责监督的文职人员的重要性已经降低。9sL世界播


This meant that military commanders, especially the head of Special Operations Command, end up making critical decisions that should be made by civilian leaders, argued retired Army Col. Mark Mitchell, who served as acting head of SO/LIC in the Trump administration, in a May op-ed. 9sL世界播

曾在特朗普政府担任SO/LIC代理负责人的退役陆军上校马克·米切尔(Mark Mitchell)在5月份的一篇专栏文章中辩称,这意味着军事指挥官,特别是特种作战司令部(Special Operations Command)的司令,最终会做出应该由文职领导人做出的关键决定。9sL世界播


“The net result is an inverted relationship that runs counter to the concept of civilian oversight,” Mitchell wrote. 9sL世界播

米切尔写道:“最终结果是一种与公民监督理念背道而驰的倒置关系。”9sL世界播


Many in the special operations community, including Mitchell, have long argued that the civilian position should be elevated to the undersecretary level. Miller himself advocated for this change during his Wednesday remarks. 9sL世界播

特种部队中的许多人,包括米切尔,长期以来一直认为文职职位应该提升到副部长级别。米勒本人在周三的讲话中主张这一改变。9sL世界播


“I personally think SO/LIC deserves to be an undersecretary of defense, but unfortunately that’s beyond my authority and purview at that time,” said Miller, who briefly served as the deputy in charge of special operations and combating terrorism this year. “I know future generations will take that on.” 9sL世界播

米勒曾在今年短暂担任负责特别行动和打击恐怖主义的副手,他说:“我个人认为So/LIC应该担任国防部副部长,但不幸的是,那超出了我当时的职权范围。”“我知道,未来几代人都会接受这一点。”9sL世界播


The change announced Wednesday reflects the fact that special operations have greatly increased in significance to America’s national security since 9/11, said retired Col. Stu Bradin, president and CEO of the Global SOF Foundation. As the Pentagon shifts its focus from counterterrorism to competition with Russia and China, special forces will have an even more important role to play, he said. 9sL世界播

全球特种部队基金会(Global SOF Foundation)总裁兼首席执行长、退休上校斯图·布拉丁(Stu Bradin)说,周三宣布的这一变化反映了这样一个事实,即自9/11事件以来,特别行动对美国国家安全的重要性大大增加。他说,随着五角大楼将重点从反恐转向与俄罗斯和中国的竞争,特种部队将发挥更重要的作用。9sL世界播


“The shift in focus to great power competition does not mean that SOF will be or should be relegated to the back burner. On the contrary, our enemies are not looking to fight us on the conventional battlefield,” Bradin said. “We must recognize the importance of irregular warfare in this next set of threats. And, in our opinion, the civilian oversight of special operations should be increased and elevated accordingly." 9sL世界播

“焦点转向大国竞争,并不意味着特种部队将会或应该退居次要地位。”相反,我们的敌人并不打算在常规战场上与我们作战。“布拉丁说。在接下来的一系列威胁中,我们必须认识到非正规战争的重要性。我们认为,应该相应地加强和提高文职人员对特别行动的监督。“9sL世界播

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