天主教教区和东正教犹太教堂要求最高法院禁止纽约的Covid限制

2020-11-19 07:36

Catholic diocese and Orthodox Jewish synagogues ask Supreme Court to block New York's Covid limits GyY世界播

天主教教区和东正教犹太教堂要求最高法院禁止纽约的Covid限制GyY世界播


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Churchgoers pray keeping social distancing at the St. Stanislaus Kostka Catholic Church in Brooklyn, New York, on June 11, 2020. GyY世界播

2020年6月11日,在纽约布鲁克林的圣斯坦尼斯劳斯·科斯卡天主教堂,经常做礼拜的人祈祷保持社会距离GyY世界播


While incidences of Covid spike across the country, the Supreme Court is once again considering arguments from houses of worship that say pandemic-related restrictions are violating their religious freedom rights. GyY世界播

虽然Covid的事件在全国范围内激增,但最高法院再次考虑礼拜场所的论点,称与流行病相关的限制侵犯了他们的宗教自由权利。GyY世界播


The two latest cases arise out of New York as a Roman Catholic Diocese in Brooklyn and a group of Orthodox synagogues are challenging Democratic Gov. Andrew Cuomo's executive order limiting in-person attendance at houses of worship to 10 or 25 people in geographic "red" and "orange" zones. GyY世界播

最近的两起案件发生在纽约,当时布鲁克林的一个罗马天主教教区和一群东正教犹太教堂正在挑战民主党州长安德鲁·科莫(Andrew Cuomo)的行政命令,该行政命令限制在地理上的“红色”和“橙色”区域亲自前往礼拜场所的人数不得超过10到25人。GyY世界播


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The disputes tee up another test for a court that has already closely divided 5-4 on the issue, and highlights not only the role of Chief Justice John Roberts, who sided against churches in related cases from California and Nevada, but also Justice Amy Coney Barrett, whose vote could represent a solid indication of the court's rightward turn since the death of Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg. GyY世界播

在这个问题上,最高法院已经出现了5比4的严重分歧。这起纠纷给最高法院带来了又一次考验,不仅突显了首席大法官约翰·罗伯茨(John Roberts)的作用,他在加利福尼亚州和内华达州的相关案件中反对教会,也突显了大法官艾米·科尼·巴雷特(Amy Coney Barrett)的作用,巴雷特的投票可能有力地表明,自大法官露丝·巴德·金斯伯格(Ruth Bader Ginsburg)去世以来,最高法院向右转。GyY世界播


It comes as the US has recorded more than 100,000 daily infections for two weeks straight, and Justice Samuel Alito has lashed out at his colleagues, accusing them of failing to properly consider the First Amendment rights of houses of worship. GyY世界播

与此同时,美国已连续两周记录到每日感染人数超过10万人,大法官塞缪尔·阿利托(Samuel Alito)猛烈抨击他的同僚,指责他们未能正确考虑礼拜场所第一修正案(First Amendment)的权利。GyY世界播


Alito did not mince words during a speech last week about his feelings of attendance limits. GyY世界播

阿利托在上周的一次演讲中直言不讳地谈到了他对出席率限制的感受。GyY世界播


"We have never before seen restrictions as severe, extensive and prolonged," Alito told a Federalist Society audience, adding that the pandemic has resulted in "previously unimaginable restrictions on individual liberty." GyY世界播

“我们以前从未见过如此严厉、广泛和持久的限制,”阿利托对联邦主义者协会的听众说,并补充说,疫情已经导致了“以前无法想象的对个人自由的限制”。GyY世界播


The Covid crisis, Alito said, has served as a "sort of constitutional stress test." GyY世界播

阿利托说,科维德危机已经成为一种“宪法压力测试”。GyY世界播


Lawyers for the Brooklyn diocese, which is composed of 186 parishes and 210 total churches, say that the New York order "effectively closes" churches and other houses of worship but allows businesses deemed essential by the governor -- including supermarkets, pet stores and hardware stores -- to remain open. GyY世界播

布鲁克林教区由186个教区和210座教堂组成。该教区的律师表示,纽约秩序实际上关闭了教堂和其他礼拜场所,但允许州长认为必不可少的企业--包括超市、宠物店和五金店--继续营业。GyY世界播


"In short, the pandemic alone cannot justify overbroad, untailored closure orders of indefinite duration directed at all houses of worship that in another time would plainly be found to violate the Constitution," the lawyers say in court papers. The so-called "Cluster Initiative" -- aimed at neighborhoods -- went into effect on October 6. GyY世界播

律师们在法庭文件中表示:“简而言之,仅凭疫情本身并不能为针对所有礼拜场所的过于宽泛、没有量身定做的无限期封闭令辩护,这些禁令在另一段时间内显然会被发现违反宪法。”所谓的“集群倡议”--针对社区--于10月6日生效。GyY世界播


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Supreme Court decides against Nevada church fighting to overturn attendance limit GyY世界播

最高法院裁定内华达州教堂反对推翻出席人数限制的斗争GyY世界播


On Wednesday New York state Attorney General Letitia James, representing Cuomo, responded to the Supreme Court, calling the restrictions an effort to balance the need to protect residents and "help them return, as much as possible, to their normal lives." GyY世界播

周三,代表库默的纽约州总检察长利蒂夏·詹姆斯(Letitia James)回应最高法院,称这些限制是为了平衡保护居民的需要和“帮助他们尽可能恢复正常生活”的需要。GyY世界播


James argued that in some instances houses of worship are treated "more favorably than comparable gatherings" such as concerts and other large indoor gatherings. GyY世界播

詹姆斯认为,在某些情况下,礼拜场所比音乐会和其他大型室内聚会等类似的聚会“更受欢迎”。GyY世界播


She said the state Department of Health had identified ZIP codes with the highest Covid-19 rates to identify problematic clusters and then had initiated restriction zones. She highlighted a "documented history of religious gatherings serving as Covid-19 super-spreader events." GyY世界播

她说,州卫生部已经确定了新冠肺炎比率最高的邮政编码,以确定有问题的集群,然后启动了限制区。她强调了一部有记录的宗教集会历史,作为新冠肺炎的超级传播者事件。GyY世界播


James added that businesses that have been allowed to remain open do not share religious services' specific risk factors, which include large numbers of people from different households arriving simultaneously, congregating for an extended period to speak, sing or chant and then leaving simultaneously. GyY世界播

詹姆斯补充说,被允许继续营业的企业并不分享宗教仪式的具体风险因素,这些因素包括来自不同家庭的大量人同时抵达,在很长一段时间内聚集在一起演讲、唱歌或吟唱,然后同时离开。GyY世界播


A federal appeals court ruled in favor of Cuomo. GyY世界播

一家联邦上诉法院做出了有利于库默的裁决。GyY世界播


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Judge rules against Brooklyn Diocese in Covid-19 lawsuit GyY世界播

法官在新冠肺炎诉讼中做出不利于布鲁克林教区的裁决GyY世界播


In addition, earlier this week lawyers for Orthodox Jewish synagogues in New York as well as a national Orthodox Jewish organization filed a separate petition challenging the same executive order. They argue that Cuomo expressly targeted the Orthodox Jewish community because he claimed their neighborhoods violated prior rules. GyY世界播

此外,本周早些时候,纽约东正教犹太教堂以及一个全国性的东正教犹太组织的律师分别提交了一份请愿书,挑战同一行政命令。他们辩称,库默明确针对东正教犹太人社区,因为他声称他们的社区违反了先前的规则。GyY世界播


"The governor's targeting of a religious minority for blame during a pandemic, falsely tarring them as perpetrators rather than victims of the virus, is incompatible with the Free Exercise Clause," the lawyers said. GyY世界播

律师们说:“州长在流感大流行期间将少数宗教指责为罪魁祸首,错误地将他们定性为病毒的肇事者,而不是受害者,这与自由行使条款是不相容的。”GyY世界播


Eric Rassbach, a senior lawyer at Becket Law representing the synagogues, said in an interview that the "real question here is whether there are any constitutional guardrails on the Covid-19 response, or do the court simply stay out completely?" GyY世界播

代表犹太教堂的贝克特律师事务所(Becket Law)高级律师埃里克·拉斯巴赫(Eric Rassbach)在接受采访时说,“真正的问题是,对新冠肺炎的回应是否有宪法保护,还是法院完全置身事外?”GyY世界播


"The history of things like Japanese internment and the treatment of Jehovah's Witnesses during World War II show that it is precisely during times of national peril that our courts must stand as guardians of our most basic beliefs," he said. GyY世界播

他说,“二战期间拘留日本人和对待耶和华见证人等事件的历史表明,正是在国家危急时刻,我们的法院必须捍卫我们最基本的信仰。”GyY世界播


Rassbach distinguishes his case from two cases yearlier this year where churches out of Nevada and California sought to block restrictions on in-person worship services. Back then, a 5-4 court ruled against the religious institutions with Roberts joining the left side of the bench. In an attempt to sway Roberts, Rassbach notes that those orders came out earlier in the pandemic and argues that the Cluster Initiative specifically targets Orthodox Jews. GyY世界播

拉斯巴赫将他的案例与今年早些时候的两个案例区分开来,那两个案例是内华达州和加利福尼亚州的教堂试图阻止对面对面礼拜活动的限制。当时,一家5比4的法院做出了不利于宗教机构的裁决,罗伯茨加入了左翼法官的行列。在试图动摇罗伯茨的过程中,拉斯巴赫指出,这些命令是在大流行的早期发布的,并辩称集群倡议专门针对东正教犹太人。GyY世界播


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Members of Orthodox Jewish community protest for a second night in Brooklyn over new Covid-19 restrictions GyY世界播

东正教犹太社区成员在布鲁克林连续第二晚抗议新冠肺炎的新限制GyY世界播


In the California case last May, Roberts said the rules put in place appeared consistent with the Free Exercise Clause of the Constitution and that the churches were treated comparably to secular gatherings including lectures, concerts, movie showings, spectator sports and theatrical performances. GyY世界播

在加州去年5月的案件中,罗伯茨表示,制定的规则似乎符合宪法的自由行使条款,教堂受到了与世俗聚会类似的待遇,包括演讲、音乐会、电影放映、观众体育和戏剧表演。GyY世界播


"Our Constitution principally entrusts the safety and the health of the people to the politically accountable officials of the States to guard and protect," Roberts said. GyY世界播

罗伯茨说:“我们的宪法主要将人民的安全和健康委托给各州政治负责的官员来守卫和保护。”GyY世界播


It is a point stressed by the American Medical Association, which has filed a brief in support of Cuomo. Lawyers for the association stress that Covid-19 is the "greatest public health emergency in a century" and that governments have had to make difficult choices in order to protect citizens. GyY世界播

这是美国医学会(American Medical Association)强调的一点,该协会已经提交了一份支持库莫的简报。该协会的律师强调,新冠肺炎是“百年不遇的突发公共卫生事件”,为了保护公民,政府不得不做出艰难的选择。GyY世界播


"Remaining in close proximity indoors for long durations, as well as singing and talking, make attendance at religious service, risky, even if congregants follow precautions," the brief says and notes that the restrictions are similar to those for indoor sporting events, bars and indoor restaurants. GyY世界播

简报中写道:“长时间呆在室内,唱歌和聊天,即使会众采取预防措施,参加宗教仪式也是有风险的。”并指出,这些限制与室内体育赛事、酒吧和室内餐厅的限制类似。GyY世界播


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NYC schools will close after the city reached a 3% Covid positivity rate threshold GyY世界播

纽约市的学校将在该市达到3%的Covid阳性率门槛后关闭GyY世界播


Alito has objected to the comparisons to secular gatherings. GyY世界播

阿里托反对将其与世俗集会相提并论。GyY世界播


In his Federalist Society speech last week, he lambasted the governor of Nevada who, he said, had allowed fewer restrictions to casinos than houses of worship. GyY世界播

在上周的联邦主义者协会演讲中,他抨击了内华达州州长,他说,内华达州州长对赌场的限制比对礼拜场所的限制更少。GyY世界播


"If you want to worship and you are the 51st person in line, sorry you are out of luck," he said. "The state's message is this: forget about worship and head for the slot machines or maybe a Cirque de Soleil show." GyY世界播

“如果你想做礼拜,而你是第51个排队的人,很抱歉你运气不佳,”他说。“这个州传达的信息是:忘掉崇拜,去老虎机或太阳马戏团(Cirque De Soleil)表演吧。”GyY世界播

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