HS2古林地栖息地搬走了一道“烟幕”

2020-10-23 13:33

HS2: Moving ancient woodland habitat for rail line flawed, ecologists say PR7世界播

HS2:生态学家说,为铁路线移动古老的林地栖息地是有缺陷的。PR7世界播


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The site of a new 'ancient wood' PR7世界播

一种新的“古树”的所在地PR7世界播


Moving ancient woodlands cut down to make way for HS2 is a fundamentally flawed idea, leading ecologists say. PR7世界播

主要的生态学家说,移动被砍伐的古老林地为HS2让路是一个从根本上有缺陷的想法。PR7世界播


The company behind the new rapid rail connection between London and the north of England is cutting down trees in the course of the construction. PR7世界播

伦敦和英格兰北部之间新的快速铁路连接背后的公司在建设过程中正在砍伐树木。PR7世界播


HS2 say the woods are not being destroyed because their soils are being "translocated" to other places. PR7世界播

HS2说,森林没有被破坏,因为他们的土壤正在被“转移”到其他地方。PR7世界播


Experts have told the BBC there is no strong evidence this method works and say it is a "smokescreen". PR7世界播

专家告诉BBC,没有强有力的证据表明这种方法是有效的,他们说这是一种“烟幕”。PR7世界播


HS2 acknowledges the evidence for the plan is "limited". PR7世界播

HS2承认该计划的证据是“有限的”。PR7世界播


'It's madness' PR7世界播

“这太疯狂了”PR7世界播


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Penny McGregor said South Cubbington Wood in Warwickshire meant "everything to the community" PR7世界播

彭妮·麦格雷戈(Penny McGregor)说,沃里克郡的南库宾顿森林对“社区来说意味着一切”PR7世界播


Penny McGregor's family own part of ancient South Cubbington Wood in Warwickshire, of which 1.5 hectares (3.7 acres) is currently being cut down. PR7世界播

彭妮·麦格雷戈(Penny McGregor)家族拥有沃里克郡古老的南库宾顿森林(South Cubbington Wood)的一部分,其中1.5公顷(3.7英亩)目前正在被砍伐。PR7世界播


"This means everything to the community," said Mrs McGregor. PR7世界播

麦理觉议员说:“这对社会意义重大。”PR7世界播


"There are ashes scattered here of people's loved ones. It's always been a place where people go. It's de-stressing, it's good for you. PR7世界播

“这里散落着人们亲人的骨灰。这里一直是人们去的地方。这是一种减压,对你有好处。”PR7世界播


"I have tried to show [prime minister] Boris Johnson and [transport secretary] Grant Shapps, but no matter how important a place seems to be to locals, this high-speed line trumps everything. PR7世界播

“我试图向(英国首相)鲍里斯·约翰逊(Boris Johnson)和(交通部长)格兰特·沙普斯(Grant Shapps)展示,但无论一个地方对当地人来说有多重要,这条高铁胜过一切。PR7世界播


"It's becoming less and less important as we go forward with what's happening with Covid. It's madness." PR7世界播

“随着我们继续研究Covid正在发生的事情,这件事变得越来越不重要了。这太疯狂了。”PR7世界播


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Soil being scraped from the donor site as part of the "translocation" process PR7世界播

作为“移位”过程的一部分从供体部位刮去的土壤PR7世界播


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The translocated earth is laid in place at another site PR7世界播

移位的泥土被铺设在另一个地点的适当位置PR7世界播


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A large tree is moved to the new site PR7世界播

一棵大树被移到了新址PR7世界播


Elements of the ancient woodland are being translocated to a field next door. PR7世界播

古老林地的元素正在被转移到隔壁的田野里。PR7世界播


Translocation was originally described as moving a specific plant, animal, or insect for the purposes of conservation. PR7世界播

移位最初被描述为为了保护的目的而移动特定的植物、动物或昆虫。PR7世界播


But it has since controversially been used to define moving entire ecosystems that are in the way of human development. PR7世界播

但自那以后,它被用来定义阻碍人类发展的移动的整个生态系统,这一点一直备受争议。PR7世界播


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HS2 ecologist Sam Whittall said the company was aiming to "create the same habitat" PR7世界播

HS2生态学家萨姆·惠托尔说,该公司的目标是“创造同样的栖息地”PR7世界播


First, the ancient woodland - the "donor site" - is analysed and mapped. Then the vast majority of the trees are cut down. The soils are dug up and moved in trucks straight to a nearby "receiver" site. PR7世界播

首先,对古林地--“捐赠地”--进行了分析和绘制。然后,绝大多数的树木都被砍倒了。土壤被挖掘出来,用卡车直接运到附近的“接收器”地点。PR7世界播


'From A to B' PR7世界播

‘从A到B’PR7世界播


Coppice stools, saplings and bulbs are replanted. Bat boxes, reptile banks and ponds may be installed. PR7世界播

重新种植铜凳、树苗和球茎。可以安装蝙蝠箱、爬行动物围栏和池塘。PR7世界播


HS2 ecologist Sam Whittall said: "We are aiming to create the same habitat… the idea is to move that habitat from A to B." PR7世界播

HS2生态学家萨姆·惠托尔说:“我们的目标是创造相同的栖息地…,我们的想法是将栖息地从A移到B。”PR7世界播


The theory is the wood will live on, just in a different form and place. PR7世界播

理论上说,木头会继续存在,只是形式和位置不同而已。PR7世界播


However, there is no robust evidence this will work, or established method of measuring success. PR7世界播

然而,没有强有力的证据表明这会奏效,也没有既定的衡量成功的方法。PR7世界播


Questioned about the strategy, HS2 said it "recognises" there is "currently a lack of long-term detailed research into the post-translocation success of habitat translocation and there is limited robust published evidence of the effectiveness of ancient woodland soils translocation". PR7世界播

当被问及这一策略时,HS2表示,它“认识到”“目前缺乏关于栖息地转移后成功的长期详细研究,而且关于古代林地土壤转移有效性的有力公开证据有限”。PR7世界播


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Bees have made a hive in an old stump on the new site PR7世界播

蜜蜂在新址的一个旧树桩上建了一个蜂巢PR7世界播


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South Cubbington wood before the work began PR7世界播

开工前的南库宾顿树林PR7世界播


'Tearing up a Turner masterpiece' PR7世界播

“装点特纳的杰作”PR7世界播


David Coomes, professor of forest ecology and conservation at the University of Cambridge, said translocation in this sense "is like tearing up a Turner masterpiece and tossing little bits of it in to a new art installation and hoping people don't notice the difference". PR7世界播

剑桥大学(University Of Cambridge)森林生态与保护教授大卫·库姆斯(David Coome)表示,从这个意义上说,易位“就像撕毁特纳的杰作,把它的一小部分扔进一个新的艺术装置中,希望人们不会注意到其中的不同”。PR7世界播


He said: "There are complicated networks and they take a long time to come together - hundreds of years - particularly the three-dimensional structure of the forest, the trees which have hollows for bats, the homes for lots of different fungi and lots of different insects." PR7世界播

他说:“有复杂的网络,它们需要很长时间才能汇聚在一起-几百年-特别是森林的三维结构,树上有蝙蝠的空洞,许多不同的真菌和许多不同的昆虫的家园。”PR7世界播


Dr Mark Everard, from the University of the West of England, said translocation was "essentially a smokescreen for destruction and recreation". PR7世界播

来自英格兰西部大学的马克·埃弗雷德博士说,易位“本质上是破坏和娱乐的烟幕”。PR7世界播


"You can't create ancient, you can't instantly create ecosystems. PR7世界播

“你不能创造古代的,你不能立即创造生态系统。PR7世界播


"It hasn't got the same microbiology or hydrology. It is treated as a panacea and it is most definitely not. At best it is gardening." PR7世界播

“它没有同样的微生物学或水文学。它被视为灵丹妙药,而且肯定不是。充其量它是园艺。”PR7世界播


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A marked tree in the donor area PR7世界播

捐赠区的一棵有记号的树PR7世界播


Merlin Sheldrake, biologist and author of Entangled Life, a book about the study of fungi, said: "Given that there is little or no evidence of this working I think we should be concerned. PR7世界播

生物学家梅林·谢尔德雷克(Merlin Sheldrake)是一本关于真菌研究的书“纠缠生命”(Contangled Life)的作者,他说:“鉴于很少或根本没有证据表明这种作用,我认为我们应该予以关注。PR7世界播


"Different communities of organisms, whether animal, fungus, bacteria, or protist, live at different depths, or around the roots of different species of tree. PR7世界播

不同的生物群落,无论是动物、真菌、细菌还是原生动物,都生活在不同的深度,或者在不同树种的根部周围。PR7世界播


"If you dig up, transport, and deposit the soil somewhere else you will inevitably disrupt and destroy most of the intricate food webs that you are trying to preserve." PR7世界播

“如果你把土壤挖出来,运到别处,然后把它埋在别的地方,你将不可避免地破坏和破坏你试图保存的大部分错综复杂的食物网。”PR7世界播


What counts as an ancient woodland? PR7世界播

什么算古老的林地?PR7世界播


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Moss hangs on a tree in part of Cubbington Wood that will remain PR7世界播

苔藓挂在库宾顿森林部分地区的一棵树上,这棵树将保留下来PR7世界播


*For a wood to be formally listed as "ancient" it needs to have been present since at least 1600 (1750 in Scotland) PR7世界播

*要使一种木材被正式列为“古代”,它至少需要存在于1600年(苏格兰为1750年)。PR7世界播


*There are only isolated fragments left, covering just 2.5% of land in the UK PR7世界播

*只剩下孤立的碎片,仅覆盖英国2.5%的土地。PR7世界播


*Ancient woodland is described as "irreplaceable" in the government's keepers of time policy paper. PR7世界播

*在政府的时间政策文件保管员中,古林地被形容为“不可替代的”PR7世界播


*The Woodland Trust says the London to Crewe HS2 line directly affects 44 ancient woodlands, with the loss of approximately 40 hectares - equivalent to around 75 football pitches PR7世界播

*伍德兰信托基金表示,伦敦至克鲁HS2线直接影响44处古林地,损失约40公顷-相当于约75个足球场。PR7世界播


*HS2 says 43 woods will be affected - 39 hectares PR7世界播

*HS2表示,43棵树林将受到影响-39公顷。PR7世界播


HS2 said seven million new trees and shrubs will be planted along a "green corridor" along the first stage of the route. PR7世界播

HS2表示,沿第一阶段的“绿色走廊”将种植700万棵新的树木和灌木。PR7世界播


And with respect to translocation, it hopes to "inform research and future ecological approaches". PR7世界播

关于易位,它希望“为研究和未来的生态方法提供信息”。PR7世界播


50 year commitment PR7世界播

50年承诺。PR7世界播


The company took the BBC to see its project in Broadwells Wood in Warwickshire. PR7世界播

该公司带着BBC去看了它在沃里克郡布罗德韦尔斯森林的项目。PR7世界播


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New ponds and banks for wildlife have been created at the site in Broadwells Wood PR7世界播

在布罗德韦尔斯森林的遗址上,为野生动物建造了新的池塘和堤坝PR7世界播


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Ancient woodland at the site untouched by the work PR7世界播

工地上的古林地,没有受到工程的影响PR7世界播


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The donor site and route of HS2 PR7世界播

HS2的供体部位和途径PR7世界播


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The new site with a deadwood monolith PR7世界播

带有枯木石块的新遗址PR7世界播


To the outrage of wildlife charities, a large part of the wood was felled in April - against its own guidance for translocation to be carried out in "late autumn or early winter". PR7世界播

令野生动物慈善机构义愤填膺的是,很大一部分木材在4月份被砍伐-违反了他们自己的指导,即在“秋末或初冬”进行转移。PR7世界播


It is now the so-called SK130 donor site. PR7世界播

它现在是所谓的SK130捐赠网站。PR7世界播


Mr Whittall said it had been divided in to "cells" - layers of leaf litter and topsoil split, scraped up with a digger, transported in a dumper, and replaced. PR7世界播

惠托尔先生说,它已经被分成了“细胞”--一层层的落叶和表土被劈开,用挖掘机刮起,装在翻斗车里运输,然后更换。PR7世界播


A "feature" like a "dead wood monolith" or a coppice stool was placed every 120 square metres. PR7世界播

每120平方米摆放一块“枯木巨石”或“铜凳”之类的“特色”。PR7世界播


Six months on, the stump of a sweet chestnut has sent up a single shoot, there are several dozen living saplings and some bluebell bulbs have started to grow roots. PR7世界播

六个月过去了,一棵甜栗子的树桩已经长出了一条嫩芽,几十棵活树苗和一些风信子球茎开始生根。PR7世界播


Bees have moved into a hole in a dead tree. PR7世界播

蜜蜂已经搬进了一棵枯树上的一个洞里。PR7世界播


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New growth from a sweet chestnut which has been moved to its new home PR7世界播

从一颗搬到新家的甜栗子里长出了新的东西PR7世界播


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"You can see it's been a great success," said Mr Whittall. PR7世界播

“你可以看到这是一个巨大的成功,”惠托尔说。PR7世界播


He said they would assess SK130, documenting the flora and fauna and have committed to do this for the next 50 years. PR7世界播

他说,他们将评估SK130,记录动植物,并承诺在未来50年内这样做。PR7世界播


"In terms of ecological growth, it takes time, obviously." PR7世界播

“显然,就生态增长而言,这需要时间。”PR7世界播


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