1903年挖掘坟墓之谜当地人发现一具空棺材

2020-10-22 16:08

Grave expectations: When a celebrated Aboriginal man was exhumed in 1903 locals were shocked to find his coffin EMPTY - as incredible grave robbing scandal that shocked Australia was uncovered 5Q4世界播

严重的期望:1903年,当一位著名的土著男子被挖掘出来时,当地人震惊地发现他的棺材是空的-因为震惊澳大利亚的令人难以置信的盗墓丑闻被揭露了。5Q4世界播


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When the grave of an Aboriginal man was exhumed in colonial-era Australia, an empty coffin sparked sinister rumours among the local townsfolk. 5Q4世界播

在殖民时代的澳大利亚,当一名原住民的坟墓被挖掘出来时,一具空棺材在当地居民中引发了险恶的谣言。5Q4世界播


Poltpalingada Booboorowie, a Ngarringjeri man residents knew as Tommy Walker, was a popular figure before his death. 5Q4世界播

Poltpalingada Booboorowie是一名Ngarringjeri男子,当地居民称他为汤米·沃克(Tommy Walker),他在去世前是一个受欢迎的人物。5Q4世界播


He would frequently dress in a top hat and tails as he wandered the streets of Adelaide in the early 1900s. 5Q4世界播

20世纪初,当他在阿德莱德的街道上漫步时,他经常戴着大礼帽,穿着燕尾服。5Q4世界播


Although Walker accepted the colonial rulers with good humour he would often make fun of them when he ended up in court. 5Q4世界播

虽然沃克很有幽默感地接受了殖民统治者,但当他在法庭上结束时,他经常会取笑他们。5Q4世界播


When caught without a tram ticket, Walker told one judge he had the same free-fare rights a parliamentarians. 5Q4世界播

当被抓到没有电车车票时,沃克告诉一名法官,他和国会议员一样有免费票价的权利。5Q4世界播


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Tommy Walker, would frequently dress in a top hat and tails as he wandered the streets of Adelaide in the early 1900s 5Q4世界播

20世纪初,汤米·沃克(Tommy Walker)在阿德莱德的街道上漫步时,经常戴着大礼帽,穿着燕尾服5Q4世界播


'The newspapers would comment upon his appearances in court where he would make some sort of sarcastic remark to the judge,' historian Robert Foster told the ABC. 5Q4世界播

历史学家罗伯特·福斯特告诉美国广播公司:“报纸会对他出庭发表评论,他会在法庭上对法官说一些讽刺的话。”5Q4世界播


So liked was Walker that well-heeled Adelaide society types were saddened when he passed away in 1901. 5Q4世界播

沃克是如此受欢迎,以至于当他在1901年去世时,富裕的阿德莱德社会人士都感到悲伤。5Q4世界播


The city's stock exchange even paid for a funeral and headstone and fond obituaries published were published in the local press. 5Q4世界播

该市的证券交易所甚至支付了葬礼和墓碑的费用,并在当地媒体上发表了令人喜爱的讣告。5Q4世界播


However two-years later when Walker's grave was exhumed on orders of the South Australian parliament, the coffin was found to contain only sandbags. 5Q4世界播

然而,两年后,当沃克的坟墓在南澳大利亚议会的命令下被挖掘出来时,发现棺材里只有沙袋。5Q4世界播


Suddenly all eyes turned to the state-coroner who presided over Walker's autopsy and burial, a man by the name of William Ramsay-Smith who was educated in Edinburgh, and was not well-liked among residents. 5Q4世界播

突然,所有的目光都转向了主持沃克尸检和葬礼的州验尸官,这位名叫威廉·拉姆齐-史密斯(William Ramsay-Smith)的人在爱丁堡接受教育,在居民中并不受欢迎。5Q4世界播


Two of Ramsay-Smith's disgruntled colleagues had tipped-off parliament, telling the authorities that something was amiss with Walker's grave. 5Q4世界播

拉姆齐-史密斯的两名心怀不满的同事已经向议会通风报信,告诉当局沃克的坟墓有些不对劲。5Q4世界播


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The state-coroner who presided over Walker's autopsy and burial, a man by the name of William Ramsay-Smith (pictured) who was educated in Edinburgh, was not as liked among the residents 5Q4世界播

主持沃克尸检和葬礼的州验尸官名叫威廉·拉姆齐-史密斯(William Ramsay-Smith),在爱丁堡接受教育,在居民中并不那么受欢迎5Q4世界播


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Adelaide at the turn of the 1900s: Residents rode trams that would compete for the streets with horses and carts (pictured) 5Q4世界播

20世纪之交的阿德莱德:居民们乘坐有轨电车,与马匹和手推车争夺街道(如图)5Q4世界播


'They decided to go to parliament and to suggest to them that they should exhume Tommy Walker's grave, and not just Tommy Walker's,' Historian Tony Love said. 5Q4世界播

历史学家托尼·洛夫说:“他们决定去议会,建议他们挖出汤米·沃克的坟墓,而不仅仅是汤米·沃克的坟墓。”5Q4世界播


'There were a couple of others, a Chinese man and an American black man who had been a sailor.' 5Q4世界播

他说,还有另外几个人,一名中国男子和一名曾当过水手的美国黑人男子。5Q4世界播


The missing bodies sparked a scandal which blew open a behind-the-scenes practice of body-shopping, in which scientists in Australia were shipping the bodies back to the United Kingdom to be studied by academics. 5Q4世界播

失踪的身体引发了一桩丑闻,揭开了澳大利亚科学家将身体运回英国供学者研究的幕后购买身体的做法。5Q4世界播


Darwin's Origin of the Species had been published about half a century earlier and the anatomy of Indigenous people's was a topic of particular interest to the well established scientific institutions and museums of Europe. 5Q4世界播

达尔文的“物种起源”早在大约半个世纪前就出版了,欧洲久负盛名的科学机构和博物馆对土著人民的解剖学特别感兴趣。5Q4世界播


Locals back in Australia were outraged when they discovered the truth with newspapers declaring: 'Tommy Walker - he rests in pieces'. 5Q4世界播

澳大利亚当地人发现真相后愤怒不已,报纸上宣称:“汤米·沃克--他已经被炸成碎片了。”5Q4世界播


Ramsay-Smith was charged with 18 breaches of the Anatomy Act and there was also a parliamentary inquiry conducted which uncovered the practice was common among Adelaide's museum, hospital, and medical school. 5Q4世界播

拉姆齐-史密斯被控18项违反解剖法的行为,还有一项议会调查发现,这种做法在阿德莱德的博物馆、医院和医学院很常见。5Q4世界播


Despite the outrage the inquiry reprimanded Ramsay-Smith for his 'zeal in the cause of science' impairing his judgement but did not find him guilty. 5Q4世界播

尽管众怒,但调查谴责拉姆齐-史密斯“对科学事业的热情”损害了他的判断力,但没有发现他有罪。5Q4世界播


He was removed from his official position but continued his scientific studies for the next two decades - attending burial sites of the Ngarrrindjeri people in South Australia. 5Q4世界播

他被免去了官方职务,但在接下来的20年里继续进行科学研究-参观了南澳大利亚恩加林杰里人的墓地。5Q4世界播


When he died in 1938, 180 skulls were found in his residence. 5Q4世界播

1938年他去世时,在他的住所里发现了180具头骨。5Q4世界播


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Indigenous elder Major Sumner (pictured) has been travelling overseas to repatriate remains for thirty years 5Q4世界播

土著长者萨姆纳少校(如图)30年来一直在海外旅行,将遗体送回国内5Q4世界播


The practice led to distrust among Aboriginal communities in South Australia over the following decades with many refusing to go to hospitals for treatment. 5Q4世界播

在接下来的几十年里,这种做法导致南澳大利亚州土著社区之间的不信任,许多人拒绝去医院接受治疗。5Q4世界播


Indigenous elder Major Sumner explains that even now the Ngarrindjeri people insist on an open coffin at a funeral. 5Q4世界播

土著长老萨姆纳少校解释说,即使是现在,恩加林杰里人仍然坚持在葬礼上打开棺材。5Q4世界播


'We make sure the right person is in the box or there is a person in there, because if we dug up all the coffins in our cemetery more than half would be empty because in those days the coroner had full control of what to do with remains,' he said. 5Q4世界播

他说,我们要确保箱子里有合适的人,或者里面有一个人,因为如果我们把墓地里所有的棺材都挖出来,一半以上的棺材都会是空的,因为在那些日子里,验尸官完全可以控制如何处理遗体。5Q4世界播


The South Australian Aborigines Friends Association wrote on behalf of the people of Point McLeay Mission to return Mr Walker's remains but the request was largely ignored for more than 70 years. 5Q4世界播

南澳大利亚土著之友协会代表Point McLeay宣教团的人民写信要求归还沃克先生的遗体,但70多年来,这一要求基本上被忽视了。5Q4世界播


There have been renewed efforts in recent years to repatriate the remains of those indigenous people transported to British institutions, with more than 1,500 ancestral remains being brought back by the end of 2019. 5Q4世界播

近年来,为遣返那些被运送到英国机构的土著人民的遗骸做出了新的努力,到2019年底,已有1500多具祖先遗骸被带回。5Q4世界播


Thousands more are still in British, European and American museums. 5Q4世界播

还有数千人仍在英国、欧洲和美国的博物馆里。5Q4世界播


Mr Sumner, who has been travelling to foreign countries regularly for the last 30 years to negotiate the repatriation of his ancestors, said negotiations can be slow. 5Q4世界播

萨姆纳表示,谈判可能会很缓慢。过去30年来,萨姆纳一直定期前往外国谈判遣返祖先的事宜。5Q4世界播


He explains while some people are willing to listen and want to learn about Aboriginal culture, others have the view that the remains are their property. 5Q4世界播

他解释说,虽然有些人愿意倾听并想了解原住民文化,但另一些人认为遗骸是他们的财产。5Q4世界播


Mr Sumner would like to see a National Resting Place establish for the remains of those ancestors returned to the country, not only out of respect but also a reminder that we should move forward as a society and not regress. 5Q4世界播

萨姆纳希望看到为这些祖先的遗骸建立一个国家安息之地,这不仅是出于尊重,也是为了提醒我们,我们应该作为一个社会向前发展,而不是倒退。5Q4世界播


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Major Sumner (pictured in 2018 as a Greens candidate with Greens colleague Sarah Hanson-Young) 5Q4世界播

萨姆纳少校(2018年作为绿党候选人与绿党同事莎拉·汉森-杨合影)5Q4世界播

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