独家报道:五角大楼警告军方成员DNA试剂盒构成“个人和操作风险”

2020-10-18 08:05

Exclusive: Pentagon warns military members DNA kits pose ‘personal and operational risks’ 9P1世界播

独家报道:五角大楼警告军方成员DNA试剂盒构成“个人和操作风险”9P1世界播


WASHINGTON — The Pentagon is advising members of the military not to use consumer DNA kits, saying the information collected by private companies could pose a security risk, according to a memo co-signed by the Defense Department’s top intelligence official. 9P1世界播

华盛顿--国防部最高情报官员联署的一份备忘录显示,五角大楼建议军方成员不要使用消费者DNA试剂盒,称私营公司收集的信息可能构成安全风险。9P1世界播


A growing number of companies like 23andMe and Ancestry sell testing kits that allow buyers to get a DNA profile by sending in a cheek swab or saliva sample. The DNA results provide consumers information on their ancestry, insights into possible medical risks and can even identify previously unknown family members. 9P1世界播

越来越多的公司,如23andMe和先祖,销售检测试剂盒,允许买家通过发送面颊拭子或唾液样本来获得DNA图谱。DNA结果为消费者提供了关于他们祖先的信息,对可能的医疗风险的洞察,甚至可以识别以前不知名的家庭成员。9P1世界播


The boom in popularity of such kits has raised ethical and legal issues, since some companies have shared this data with law enforcement or sold it to third parties. The Defense Department is now expressing its own concerns about these kits. 9P1世界播

这类工具包的流行引发了道德和法律问题,因为一些公司已经与执法部门共享了这些数据,或者将其出售给了第三方。国防部现在表达了自己对这些工具包的担忧。9P1世界播


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This illustration picture shows a saliva collection kit for DNA testing displayed in Washington DC on December 19, 2018. (Photo: Eric Baradat/AFP via Getty Images) 9P1世界播

这张插图显示的是2018年12月19日在华盛顿特区展示的用于DNA检测的唾液采集试剂盒。(图片来源:埃里克·巴拉达特/法新社通过Getty Images报道)9P1世界播


“Exposing sensitive genetic information to outside parties poses personal and operational risks to Service members,” says the Dec. 20 memo signed by Joseph D. Kernan, the undersecretary of defense for intelligence, and James N. Stewart, the assistant secretary of defense for manpower. 9P1世界播

12月20日,国防部负责情报事务的副部长约瑟夫·D·科南(Joseph D.Kernan)和国防部负责人力事务的助理部长詹姆斯·N·斯图尔特(James N.Stewart)签署的备忘录称,“将敏感基因信息暴露给外界会给服役人员带来个人和操作风险。”9P1世界播


The memo — which says that some DNA kit companies have been targeting military personnel with discounts — appears to have been distributed widely within the Defense Department, though it has not previously been made public. The memo was obtained by Yahoo News. 9P1世界播

这份备忘录-其中说,一些DNA工具包公司一直在以折扣针对军事人员-似乎在国防部内部广泛分发,尽管之前没有公开。雅虎新闻获得了这份备忘录。9P1世界播


“These [direct-to-consumer] genetic tests are largely unregulated and could expose personal and genetic information, and potentially create unintended security consequences and increased risk to the joint force and mission,” states the memo. 9P1世界播

“这些(直接面向消费者的)基因测试在很大程度上是不受监管的,可能会暴露个人和基因信息,并可能造成意想不到的安全后果,增加联合部队和任务的风险,”备忘录说。9P1世界播


The memo provides little details on how genetic profiles could endanger security, other than noting that potential “inaccuracies” in health information could pose a risk to military personnel, who are required to report medical issues. Most of the health reports provided by DNA companies typically pertain to medical risks, though, such as a predisposition to cancer, rather than diagnosing a condition. 9P1世界播

这份备忘录几乎没有提供基因图谱如何危及安全的细节,只是指出,健康信息中潜在的“不准确”可能会给被要求报告医疗问题的军事人员带来风险。然而,DNA公司提供的大多数健康报告通常与医疗风险有关,例如癌症的易感性,而不是诊断一种疾病。9P1世界播


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A saliva collection kit for DNA testing is displayed in the arms of a Father Christmas doll. (Eric BARADAt/AFP) 9P1世界播

一个用于DNA测试的唾液采集工具包陈列在一个圣诞老人娃娃的怀里。(埃里克·巴拉达特/法新社)9P1世界播


However, the involvement of the Pentagon’s intelligence chief in the issue points to broader concerns about biometrics — like DNA, fingerprints and facial recognition — which have been crucial in helping the U.S. identify potential enemies but also expose U.S. national security personnel to identification by other countries. 9P1世界播

然而,五角大楼情报负责人参与这一问题表明,人们对生物识别技术-如DNA、指纹和面部识别-的更广泛担忧,这些技术在帮助美国识别潜在敌人方面至关重要,但也让美国国家安全人员面临其他国家的身份识别。9P1世界播


U.S. intelligence officials are increasingly concerned about how DNA testing will affect their ability to operate worldwide, says a former senior intelligence official, who pointed to the rise of DNA swab tests at some international airports as one factor in a decline in CIA personnel using aliases while travelling abroad. 9P1世界播

一位前高级情报官员说,美国情报官员越来越担心DNA测试将如何影响他们在全球范围内的行动能力。他指出,一些国际机场DNA拭子测试的增加是中情局人员在国外旅行时使用化名减少的一个因素。9P1世界播


Erin Murphy, a professor at New York University’s School of Law, says she’s heard about concerns that a foreign government with suspicions about someone operating inside their country — like a potential spy — could use a commercial genetic database to unmask the person. “It all boils down to the same basic idea,” she says. “In a world in which a few stray cells can be used to identify a person, there is no such thing as a covert action, and no such thing as anonymity.” 9P1世界播

纽约大学法学院(New York University‘s School of Law)教授艾琳·墨菲(Erin Murphy)表示,她听说有人担心,怀疑某人在本国境内活动的外国政府-就像潜在的间谍-可能会利用商业基因数据库来揭开这个人的面纱。“归根结底,这都是一个基本理念,”她说。“在一个几个流浪细胞就可以用来识别一个人的世界里,没有隐蔽的行动,也没有匿名这回事。”9P1世界播


One possible scenario, Murphy says, would be for someone to use genetic information to track down covert operatives involved in a high-level foreign military operation, such as the killing of Osama bin Laden, in order to exact revenge. “It’s not hard to imagine a world where people are blithely sharing information online without realizing their third cousin is a Navy SEAL, or an operative of the CIA.” 9P1世界播

墨菲说,一种可能的情况是,有人利用基因信息追踪参与高级别外国军事行动的秘密特工,例如击毙奥萨马·本·拉登(Osama Bin Laden),以实施报复。“不难想象,在这样一个世界里,人们在没有意识到自己的第三个表弟是海豹突击队队员或中情局特工的情况下,在网上轻松地分享信息。”9P1世界播


The Pentagon did not respond to specific questions raised by Yahoo News about the memo, but offered a general statement about its purpose: "We want to ensure all service members are aware of the risks of Direct to Consumer (DTC) genetic testing," saidJessica Maxwell, a Defense Department spokesperson. 9P1世界播

五角大楼没有回应雅虎新闻就这份备忘录提出的具体问题,但就其目的发表了一般性声明:“我们希望确保所有服务人员都意识到直接面向消费者(DTC)基因测试的风险,”国防部发言人杰西卡·麦克斯韦尔(Jessica Maxwell)说。9P1世界播


DOD memo on DNA testing by Sharon Weinberger on Scribd 9P1世界播

国防部关于DNA测试的备忘录,莎伦·温伯格在Scribd上。9P1世界播


For consumers turning to commercial companies for DNA profiles, one of the primary concerns has been about privacy, and the potential for others to exploit personal data, or somehow use it in ways that wasn’t intended, particularly as the size of the private DNA databases has grown. Ancestry boasts some 15 million users, while 23andMe says it has 10 million. 9P1世界播

对于向商业公司寻求DNA图谱的消费者来说,其中一个主要的担忧是隐私,以及其他人利用个人数据或以某种方式使用这些数据的可能性,特别是在私人DNA数据库的规模不断扩大的情况下。先辈号称拥有约1500万用户,而23andMe称其拥有1000万用户。9P1世界播


In response to a query from Yahoo News, a spokesperson for Ancestry said the company does not offer military discounts. The spokesperson also said the company has taken a number of measures to protect users’ privacy. 9P1世界播

在回答雅虎新闻(Yahoo News)的询问时,祖先的一位发言人表示,该公司不提供军事折扣。这位发言人还表示,公司已经采取了一系列措施来保护用户的隐私。9P1世界播


“Protecting our customers’ privacy and being good stewards of their data is Ancestry’s highest priority. Ancestry does not share customer DNA data with insurers, employers, or third-party marketers,” the spokesperson said in an emailed statement. “Ancestry will also not share customer personal information with law enforcement unless compelled to by valid legal process, such as a court order or search warrant.” 9P1世界播

保护我们客户的隐私和做好他们数据的管家是我们祖先的最高优先事项。先辈不与保险公司、雇主或第三方营销者共享客户DNA数据,“这位发言人在一份电子邮件声明中说。祖先也不会与执法部门共享客户个人信息,除非受到有效法律程序(如法院命令或搜查令)的强制要求。9P1世界播


23andMe also defended its privacy protection, and took issue with concerns over security. “All of our customers should be assured we take the utmost efforts to protect their privacy, and that the results we provide are highly accurate,” a spokesman wrote in a statement. “Our FDA-authorized health reports have been tested at over 99% accuracy. All of our testing is done in the U.S., and we do not share information with third parties without separate, explicit consent from our customers.” 9P1世界播

23andMe还为其隐私保护进行了辩护,并对安全方面的担忧提出了异议。一位发言人在一份声明中写道:“我们应该向所有客户保证,我们将尽最大努力保护他们的隐私,我们提供的结果高度准确。”“我们FDA授权的健康报告已经过测试,准确率超过99%。我们的所有测试都是在美国进行的,未经客户单独明确同意,我们不会与第三方共享信息。“。9P1世界播


Now even the Pentagon appears to recognize this potential threat. “[T]here is increased concern in the scientific community that outside parties are exploiting the use of genetic data for questionable purposes, including mass surveillance and the ability to track individuals without their authorization or awareness,” says the memo. 9P1世界播

现在,就连五角大楼似乎也认识到了这一潜在威胁。备忘录说:“科学界越来越担心,外界正在利用基因数据用于可疑目的,包括大规模监视和在未经授权或不知情的情况下追踪个人的能力。”9P1世界播


The Pentagon’s concerns about genetics and surveillance might be viewed by some as ironic, since the Defense Department has its own massive repository of DNA. Following the 1991 Gulf War, the Pentagon began a mandatory DNA collection program for members of the military in order to identify remains of someone killed in conflict. 9P1世界播

五角大楼对基因和监视的担忧可能会被一些人视为具有讽刺意味,因为国防部拥有自己的庞大DNA存储库。1991年海湾战争后,五角大楼开始了一项针对军队成员的强制性DNA收集计划,以识别在冲突中阵亡的人的遗骸。9P1世界播


The Pentagon also collects DNA samples from terrorists and others detained on the battlefield. Most famously, the U.S. military identified Osama bin Laden’s body after he was killed by Navy SEALS in 2011, reportedly using a sample collected from a family member of the Al Qaeda leader. (After bin Laden’s death, the New York Times revealed that the CIA had organized a phony vaccination program in Pakistan in an attempt to collect DNA from the compound where bin Laden was hiding.) 9P1世界播

五角大楼还收集恐怖分子和其他被拘留在战场上的人的DNA样本。最著名的是,美国军方在2011年奥萨马·本·拉登(Osama Bin Laden)被海豹突击队击毙后确认了他的身体,据报道是使用从这位基地组织领导人的家人那里收集的样本。(在本·拉登死亡后,《纽约时报》爆料称,中情局在巴基斯坦组织了一项虚假的疫苗接种计划,试图从本·拉登藏身的院落收集DNA。)。9P1世界播


And earlier this year, the Pentagon said it used DNA testing to confirm the death of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, the leader of the Islamic State group. The U.S. government had collected al-Baghdadi’s DNA when he was detained by coalition forces in Iraq more than a decade ago. 9P1世界播

今年早些时候,五角大楼表示,他们使用DNA测试确认了伊斯兰国组织头目阿布·巴克尔·巴格达迪(Abu Bakr al-Bagdadi)的死亡。十多年前,巴格达迪在伊拉克被联军拘留时,美国政府已经收集了他的DNA。9P1世界播


It may be that the Pentagon’s newfound concern over DNA kits is based on the belief that a hostile country or group could use DNA in the same manner that the U.S. government often uses it: to target enemies. Earlier this year, the chief of naval operations said at a public event that DNA from consumer testing kits might be used in the future for tailorable biological weapons, a concern that most experts regard as far-fetched. 9P1世界播

五角大楼对DNA工具包的最新担忧可能是基于这样一种信念,即敌对国家或组织可以像美国政府经常使用的那样使用DNA:瞄准敌人。今年早些时候,海军作战部长在一次公开活动中表示,来自消费者检测套件的DNA未来可能会被用于定制的生物武器,大多数专家认为这一担忧是牵强的。9P1世界播


In either case, the Defense Department appears to not want to take that chance. 9P1世界播

无论是哪种情况,国防部似乎都不想冒这个险。9P1世界播


“Until notified otherwise, DoD military personnel are advised to refrain from the purchase and/or use of DTC [direct to consumer] genetic services,” the memo says. 9P1世界播

“除非另行通知,否则建议国防部军事人员避免购买和/或使用DTC[直接面向消费者]基因服务,”备忘录说。9P1世界播

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