当民主党人放松管制的时候

2020-10-14 08:02

When Democrats Were Deregulators t1z世界播

当民主党人放松管制的时候t1z世界播


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President Carter signs the Staggers Rail Act in Washington, Oct. 14, 1980. t1z世界播

1980年10月14日,卡特总统在华盛顿签署“交错铁路法案”t1z世界播


The term “deregulation” has become polarized in Washington. But there was a time when both parties could agree on the benefit of targeted regulatory reform. t1z世界播

“放松管制”一词在华盛顿变得两极分化。但曾经有一段时间,两党都可以就有针对性的监管改革的好处达成一致。t1z世界播


The bipartisan Staggers Rail Act of 1980, passed by a Democratic Congress and signed by President Jimmy Carter, deregulated the freight railroad industry. When Mr. Carter signed the law on Oct. 14, he said that “by stripping away needless and costly regulation in favor of marketplace forces wherever possible, this act will ... benefit shippers throughout the country by encouraging railroads to improve their equipment and better tailor their service to shipper needs.” t1z世界播

民主党国会通过并由吉米·卡特总统签署的1980年两党交错铁路法案放松了对货运铁路行业的管制。卡特在10月14日签署这项法律时说,“通过尽可能取消不必要和代价高昂的监管,转而支持市场力量,这项法案将……。通过鼓励铁路公司改进其设备并更好地根据托运人需求定制服务,使全国的托运人受益。“。t1z世界播


Targeted deregulation recognized that railroads operate in competitive markets and should price their services according to market demand and operate over their most efficient routes. t1z世界播

有针对性的放松管制认识到,铁路在竞争激烈的市场中运营,应该根据市场需求为其服务定价,并在其最有效的路线上运营。t1z世界播


Previously, railroad rates and service were set by government, and carriers were often forced to provide service on lines lacking commercial viability. Railroads publicly posted rates for specific commodities independent of market conditions. The impact on railroads was predictable and disastrous. At one point, 1 in 5 rail miles was serviced by bankrupt railroads. t1z世界播

以前,铁路运价和服务是由政府制定的,航空公司经常被迫在缺乏商业可行性的线路上提供服务。铁路公司公开公布了特定商品的运价,与市场状况无关。对铁路的影响是可以预见的,而且是灾难性的。一度,每5英里铁路中就有1英里是由破产的铁路提供服务的。t1z世界播


Partial deregulation was chosen over nationalization, which would have cost taxpayers billions of dollars. By allowing large railroads to shed inefficient, low-density or unprofitable lines to focus on core businesses, the Staggers Act not only improved service along the mainline network; it helped give birth to a short-line rail industry that today operates 50,000 miles of the 140,000-mile network that spans across the United States. t1z世界播

选择了部分放松管制,而不是国有化,国有化将花费纳税人数十亿美元。通过允许大型铁路公司剥离低效、低密度或无利可图的线路,将重点放在核心业务上,“交错法案”不仅改善了主线网络的服务,还帮助催生了短线铁路行业,目前该行业运营着横跨全美的14万英里网络中的5万英里。t1z世界播


The Staggers Act maintained ample protections for customers that lack effective competition. The market is allowed to work where competition exists, while the government can intervene where it doesn’t. t1z世界播

“交错法”为缺乏有效竞争的客户提供了充分的保护。市场被允许在存在竞争的地方运作,而政府可以在不存在竞争的地方进行干预。t1z世界播


The Staggers Act continues to provide economic dividends. “As we appreciate the achievements of rail deregulation, it is useful to realize that the policy succeeded in large part because it brought buyers and sellers closer together to achieve mutual benefits,” Brookings Institution researcher Clifford Winston wrote in 2005. t1z世界播

“参差法”继续提供经济红利。布鲁金斯学会研究员Clifford Winston在2005年写道,“当我们欣赏铁路放松管制的成就时,认识到该政策的成功在很大程度上是因为它拉近了买家和卖家的距离,以实现互惠互利,这是有益的.”t1z世界播


Since 1980, freight railroads have poured more than $710 billion of their own funds back into their operations. Average rail rates are 43% lower today than in 1981 when adjusted for inflation. This translates into at least $10 billion in annual savings for U.S. consumers. Safety and service are at historically high levels. t1z世界播

自1980年以来,货运铁路已将超过7100亿美元的自有资金投入运营。经通胀调整后,今天的平均铁路票价比1981年低43%。这意味着美国消费者每年至少节省100亿美元。安全和服务处于历史最高水平。t1z世界播


U.S. freight railroads play an integral role in the economy today because Democrats and Republicans collaborated to balance market forces and rate regulation. Polling by Real Clear Politics found that most Americans support markets and targeted regulation. The Staggers Act is an example of deregulation done right. t1z世界播

美国货运铁路在今天的经济中发挥着不可或缺的作用,因为民主党人和共和党人合作平衡了市场力量和费率监管。Real Clear Politics的民意调查发现,大多数美国人支持市场和有针对性的监管。“交错法”是放松管制做得对的一个例子。t1z世界播


Mr. Jefferies is president and CEO of the Association of American Railroads. t1z世界播

杰弗瑞先生是美国铁路协会的总裁兼首席执行官。t1z世界播


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