特朗普政府可以提前结束人口普查,最高法院规定

2020-10-14 08:02

Trump administration can end census count early, supreme court rules 5QT世界播

特朗普政府可以提前结束人口普查,最高法院规定5QT世界播


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Photograph: Robyn Beck/AFP/Getty Images 5QT世界播

图片来源:罗宾·贝克(Robyn Beck)/法新社/盖蒂图片社5QT世界播


The US supreme court will allow the Trump administration to immediately end counting for the 2020 census, despite warnings that doing so would result in inaccurate data with severe consequences for the next decade. 5QT世界播

美国最高法院将允许特朗普政府立即停止2020年人口普查的统计,尽管有警告称,这样做将导致不准确的数据,并对未来十年产生严重后果。5QT世界播


The ruling essentially cuts short counting every living American resident, scheduled to end on 31 October, by two weeks. The court did not offer any explanation for its order, which came after the Trump administration asked the justices to pause a lower court ruling extending the count while the case was appealed. Only Justice Sonia Sotomayor said she would have blocked the request to halt the proceedings. 5QT世界播

这项裁决实质上缩短了原定于10月31日结束的每一位在世美国居民的统计时间,缩短了两周。法院没有对其命令做出任何解释,此前特朗普政府要求法官们在上诉期间暂停下级法院延长计数的裁决。只有大法官索尼娅·索托马约尔(Sonia Sotomayor)表示,她会阻止停止诉讼的请求。5QT世界播


“Meeting the deadline at the expense of the accuracy of the census is not a cost worth paying, especially when the Government has failed to show why it could not bear the lesser cost of expending more resources to meet the deadline or continuing its prior efforts to seek an extension from Congress,” Sotomayor wrote in her dissent. 5QT世界播

索托马约尔在她的异议中写道:“以牺牲人口普查的准确性为代价来满足最后期限是不值得的,特别是当政府未能证明为什么它不能承担花费更多资源来满足最后期限或继续之前的努力以寻求国会延长这一较低成本的情况下,”索托马约尔在她的异议中写道。5QT世界播


Lower courts had ordered the Trump administration to extend counting until 31 October. The decennial survey, used to draw electoral districts and allocate $1.5tn in federal funds, was originally scheduled to end 30 September, but the Trump administration originally sought a one month extension earlier this year, pointing to delays because of the coronavirus pandemic. 5QT世界播

下级法院曾命令特朗普政府将计票时间延长至10月31日。这项十年一度的调查用于划分选区和分配1.5万亿美元的联邦资金,原定于9月30日结束,但特朗普政府今年早些时候最初寻求延长一个月,指出由于冠状病毒大流行而出现延误。5QT世界播


In late August, the commerce department, which oversees the Census Bureau, abruptly reversed its position, saying it would try and complete counting by 30 September and deliver the data used to determine how many seats in Congress each state gets by the 31 December statutory deadline. The reversal came even after the Bureau’s own experts warned they could not meet those deadlines. 5QT世界播

8月下旬,负责监督人口普查局的商务部突然改变了立场,表示将努力在9月30日之前完成计票工作,并提供用于确定每个州在12月31日法定最后期限前获得多少国会席位的数据。即使在该局自己的专家警告他们无法在最后期限前完成之后,情况还是出现了逆转。5QT世界播


“It is ludicrous to think we can complete 100% of the nation’s data coverage earlier than 10/31 and any thinking person who would believe we can deliver apportionment by 12/31 has either a mental deficiency or political motivation,” Tim Olson, a top bureau employee, wrote in a July email. The decision to rush the count did not come from inside the bureau, which is staffed by nonpartisan career workers, an inspector general’s report found last month. 5QT世界播

该局高级员工蒂姆·奥尔森(Tim Olson)在7月份的一封电子邮件中写道:“认为我们可以在10/31之前完成全国100%的数据覆盖是荒谬的,任何相信我们可以在12/31之前提供分摊的思想者要么是精神缺陷,要么是政治动机。”上个月,一份监察长的报告发现,仓促计票的决定并不是来自联邦调查局内部,联邦调查局的工作人员是无党派的职业工人。5QT世界播


The 31 December deadline is set in federal law, but the Trump administration has not explained why it abandoned its earlier effort to get Congress to extend the deadline until next year. There’s speculation the White House wants to ensure that Trump can oversee the allocation of US House seats, even if he loses re-election, and push to exclude undocumented immigrants from that total. 5QT世界播

12月31日的最后期限是在联邦法律中设定的,但特朗普政府没有解释为什么放弃了早先让国会将最后期限延长至明年的努力。有人猜测,白宫希望确保特朗普能够监督美国众议院席位的分配,即使他输掉了连任,并推动将非法移民排除在这一总数之外。5QT世界播


The Census Bureau claims it has already met its goal of counting 99.9% of housing units in this state. But to meet that goal, according to the New York Times, the bureau said it was willing to accept looser, and potentially less accurate, efforts to count a household, such as asking a landlord for information about a household that failed to respond to the census. 5QT世界播

人口普查局声称已经达到了统计该州99.9%的住房的目标。但据“纽约时报”(New York Times)报道,为了实现这一目标,该局表示,它愿意接受更宽松、可能更不准确的家庭统计努力,比如要求房东提供未能对人口普查做出回应的家庭的信息。5QT世界播


Even with counting complete, there are concerns that the bureau’s experts have enough time to verify the accuracy of its data before 31 December. In a typical census, experts at the bureau typically use this time to catch and fix errors. There simply may not be enough time for researchers to do that this year. 5QT世界播

即使清点完毕,也有人担心统计局的专家有足够的时间在12月31日之前核实数据的准确性。在一次典型的人口普查中,该局的专家通常会利用这段时间来捕捉和修复错误。今年可能根本没有足够的时间让研究人员做到这一点。5QT世界播


“The harms caused by rushing this year’s census count are irreparable,” Sotomayor wrote in her dissent. “And respondents will suffer their lasting impact for at least the next 10 years.” 5QT世界播

索托马约尔在她的异议中写道:“仓促进行今年的人口普查造成的伤害是无法弥补的。”“至少在未来10年内,受访者将遭受他们的持久影响。”5QT世界播

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