美国的司法机构看起来不像美国

2020-10-14 08:01

America’s Judiciary Doesn’t Look Like America 6ZS世界播

美国的司法机构看起来不像美国6ZS世界播


暂无6ZS世界播


The identity of Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg’s successor is now in the forefront of the news. The import of that appointment is self-evident. But as the gravity of that singular decision holds the public’s focus in its orbit, the American people must not lose sight of the entirety of the federal judiciary that is substantially controlled by whomever is president. 6ZS世界播

金斯伯格的继任者鲁思·巴德·金斯伯格法官的身份现在是新闻的焦点。这项任命的重要性不言而喻。但是,随着这一单一决定的严重性将公众的注意力集中在其轨道上,美国人民决不能忽视联邦司法机构的整体,该机构基本上由任何一位总统控制。6ZS世界播


Over the past four years, the current president has had a tectonic impact on the judiciary, shaping it ideologically and demographically in his own image. The president has already placed 218 judges, all with lifetime appointments, on America’s courts—25 percent of the total federal bench. A partner in this transformation, the U.S. Senate has worked at a breakneck pace, at times confirming more than 10 judges in a day. 6ZS世界播

在过去的四年里,现任总统对司法系统产生了结构性的影响,按照他自己的形象在意识形态和人口结构上塑造了司法系统。总统已经任命了218名法官,他们都是终身任命的,在美国最高法院-占联邦法官总数的25%。作为这一转型的合作伙伴,美国参议院以惊人的速度工作,有时一天内确认10多名法官。6ZS世界播


Mary Ziegler: A dangerous moment for the Court 6ZS世界播

玛丽·齐格勒:法院面临的危险时刻。6ZS世界播


The judiciary crafted over the past four years does not look like America. Since January 20, 2017, the president has appointed 55 appellate judges, two of whom now sit on the Supreme Court and the remaining 53 on circuit courts of appeal. Of those 55 judges, 85 percent are white and 80 percent are male. Not one of those judges is Black. More than 90 percent were raised or currently identify as Christian. American jurisprudence will be influenced for years by these judges whose median age is just 49—not at the time of appointment, but today. Several of them are still in their 30s. These appointments now comprise nearly 30 percent of the total federal appellate bench. 6ZS世界播

过去四年精心打造的司法系统看起来并不像美国。自2017年1月20日以来,总统任命了55名上诉法官,其中两人现在是最高法院法官,其余53人是巡回上诉法院法官。在这55名法官中,85%是白人,80%是男性。那些评委中没有一个是黑人。超过90%的人是在成长过程中长大的,或者目前认为自己是基督徒。这些法官的年龄中位数只有49岁,他们将在未来几年内影响美国的法学--不是在任命时,而是在今天。他们中的几个人还在30多岁。这些任命现在占联邦上诉法官总数的近30%。6ZS世界播


This is in stark contrast to earlier strides to diversify the judiciary, and it reflects an unapologetic preference for the homogeneity of what many Americans hoped was a bygone era. For most of the country’s history, state and federal courts were 100 percent white and male. But over the past century, the previously impenetrable judiciary slowly saw an increase in racial, gender, religious, and LGBTQ diversity. In the federal courts, appointments began to increase in diversity in 1979 under President Jimmy Carter, and with efforts compounded by presidents Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, and Barack Obama, federal judges were 71 percent white and 73 percent male by the end of 2016. Since then, judicial appointments have taken a steep racial turn. In 2017, the current president’s first year in office, 90 percent of the judges appointed to the federal courts were white. That unrelenting course has continued, and as of August 2020, according to the Federal Judicial Center, cumulatively 80 percent of all federally appointed judges were white. 6ZS世界播

这与早些时候司法多元化的步伐形成了鲜明对比,它反映了许多美国人对许多美国人希望成为过去的时代的同质化的毫无歉意的偏好。在美国历史上的大部分时间里,州法院和联邦法院都是百分之百的白人和男性。但在过去的一个世纪里,以前令人费解的司法机构慢慢地看到了种族、性别、宗教和LGBTQ多样性的增加。在联邦法院,1979年吉米·卡特(Jimmy Carter)总统领导下的任命开始增加多样性,在比尔·克林顿(Bill Clinton)、乔治·W·布什(George W.Bush)和巴拉克·奥巴马(Barack Obama)总统的共同努力下,截至2016年底,联邦法官中白人占71%,男性占73%。从那时起,司法任命出现了急剧的种族转向。2017年,也就是现任总统上任的第一年,联邦法院被任命的法官中有90%是白人。这一坚持不懈的过程仍在继续,根据联邦司法中心(Federal Justice Center)的数据,截至2020年8月,联邦任命的所有法官中,累计有80%是白人。6ZS世界播


This historic reversal has caused the judiciary to become more demographically isolated from the population it serves. We are roughly half female and half male; 4.5 percent identify as LGBTQ. We speak more than 350 languages, and nearly all Americans are descendants of immigrants who come from every one of the 194 other countries in the world. Racially, we are approximately 60 percent white, 18.5 percent Hispanic/Latino, 13.5 percent Black, 6 percent Asian, 1 percent Middle Eastern, and 1 percent Native American. Within this mix are the millions of Americans who are multiethnic, and this population is growing by the day. In 2015, 14 percent of babies born in the United States were multiracial, triple the rate of 1980. Although the majority of Americans self-identify as religious (primarily Christian at 65 percent, followed by Judaism, Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism), roughly one-quarter do not. 6ZS世界播

这一历史性的逆转导致司法机构在人口结构上与其服务的人口变得更加孤立。我们大约一半是女性,一半是男性;4.5%的人认为自己是LGBTQ。我们会说350多种语言,几乎所有美国人都是移民的后裔,这些移民来自世界上194个其他国家中的每一个国家。在种族方面,我们大约60%是白人,18.5%是西班牙裔/拉丁裔,13.5%是黑人,6%是亚洲人,1%是中东人,1%是美洲原住民。这其中有数百万美国人,他们是多民族的,而且这一人口每天都在增长。2015年,在美国出生的婴儿中有14%是多种族的,是1980年的三倍。虽然大多数美国人自认为有宗教信仰(主要是基督徒,占65%,其次是犹太教、伊斯兰教、佛教和印度教),但大约四分之一的人不这么认为。6ZS世界播


For the most part, the judicial appointments over the past four years happened quietly, eclipsed by the daily cacophony of controversies and crises reported by the media. Even in less tumultuous times, coverage of judicial nominations is minimal, as Senate confirmation hearings can be monotonous, and the individuals being vetted are largely unknown to the public. Americans are more familiar with members of the legislative and executive branches of government because those officials regularly engage the public through the press and social media and because their jobs are wholly dependent on votes. Judges, by contrast, serve the public discreetly, through written legal opinions crucial to the parties or related industries, and largely inconsequential to everyone else. Unless you are involved in civil or criminal litigation, your only interaction with the judiciary might be when you are called for jury duty. 6ZS世界播

过去四年的大部分司法任命都是悄悄进行的,每天媒体报道的争议和危机的刺耳声音使之黯然失色。即使在不那么动荡的时代,对司法提名的报道也很少,因为参议院确认听证会可能会很单调,而且接受审查的个人在很大程度上是公众所不知道的。美国人对政府立法和行政部门的成员更加熟悉,因为这些官员经常通过媒体和社交媒体与公众接触,而且他们的工作完全依赖于选票。相比之下,法官则谨慎地为公众服务,通过对当事人或相关行业至关重要的书面法律意见,而对其他所有人来说基本上无关紧要。除非你参与民事或刑事诉讼,否则你与司法机构的唯一互动可能是当你被传唤担任陪审团职责时。6ZS世界播


There is a high price to pay, however, for complacency about the judges who are appointed to the courts. As a co-equal branch of government, the judiciary has the power to invalidate unconstitutional laws and orders enacted by either of the other two branches, thereby serving as a fundamental check on abuses of executive power and legislative overreach. Notwithstanding that power, in America’s democracy, it is the other two branches of government that select the country’s federal judges, the executive alone that nominates, and the Senate that decides whether to confirm the president’s selection. This interdependent power is, quite simply, both the beauty and the frailty of our system of checks and balances. It underscores that the judgment of those selecting the judges—foremost the president and each senator—is as crucial in this process as the wisdom of judges themselves. 6ZS世界播

然而,对被任命为法院法官的自满情绪是要付出高昂代价的。作为政府的一个平等部门,司法机构有权宣布其他两个部门中任何一个部门颁布的违宪法律和命令无效,从而从根本上遏制行政权力的滥用和立法越权。尽管有这样的权力,但在美国的民主制度中,是另外两个政府部门选择国家的联邦法官,只有行政部门才能提名,参议院才能决定是否确认总统的选择。很简单,这种相互依存的力量既是我们制衡制度的优点,也是我们的弱点。它强调,那些选择法官的人-首先是总统和每位参议员-的判断力在这一过程中与法官本身的智慧一样至关重要。6ZS世界播


Lawrence Goldstone: Judiciary reform is not revenge 6ZS世界播

劳伦斯·戈德斯通:司法改革不是报复。6ZS世界播


But as of late, that wisdom has not produced a judiciary many Americans will feel they can fully trust. Each person is a complex combination of race, gender, geography, age, marital status, religion, experience, education, wealth, health, culture, political affiliation, beliefs, values, fears, sexuality, and countless other factors. Identity is the lens that filters everything and everyone we encounter. Studies have repeatedly shown that people believe their own judgments are objective, impartial, and correct, and in turn believe that others like them—in both appearance and experience—are more ethical, moral, and trustworthy. That means Americans are more prone to have confidence and trust in the judicial branch of government if it includes judges who share their physical traits, experiences, or other aspects of their identity. It is hard to underestimate the value of a trusted judiciary. At its core, that trust is the only vaccine for anarchy. 6ZS世界播

但最近,这种智慧并没有产生一个许多美国人会觉得他们完全可以信任的司法机构。每个人都是种族、性别、地理、年龄、婚姻状况、宗教、经历、教育、财富、健康、文化、政治背景、信仰、价值观、恐惧、性取向和无数其他因素的复杂组合。身份是过滤我们遇到的一切和每个人的镜头。研究一再表明,人们相信自己的判断是客观、公正和正确的,而反过来,他们相信其他和他们一样的人-无论是外表还是经验-都更有道德,更值得信赖。这意味着美国人更容易对政府的司法部门有信心和信任,如果它包括那些与他们的身体特征、经历或其他方面身份相同的法官。很难低估值得信赖的司法机构的价值。在其核心,这种信任是无政府状态的唯一疫苗。6ZS世界播


For this reason, a diverse judicial branch is not a superficial optic. Judges must engage in balancing tests, considering what a “reasonable” person would believe, what norms exist in a community, and what rights society is willing to protect. These inquiries necessarily involve value judgments that are colored by life experiences. A judiciary that includes only perspectives of the dominant class will likely yield judgments that reinforce the experience and the values of the majority. 6ZS世界播

因此,多元化的司法部门并不是肤浅的。法官必须进行平衡测试,考虑到一个“合理”的人会相信什么,一个社区存在什么规范,以及社会愿意保护什么权利。这些询问必然涉及带有生活经验色彩的价值判断。一个只包含占主导地位阶级的观点的司法机构很可能会产生加强多数人的经验和价值观的判决。6ZS世界播


That is not a recipe for protecting the individual liberties that are at the core of the Constitution. The public might also feel skeptical about the judiciary’s objectivity and willingness to independently check the power of the other two branches of government if the judges are a demographic and ideologic reflection of both the president and a largely homogenous Senate majority. Diversity is America’s natural state, and when that diversity is not mirrored in places of power such as boardrooms and our courts, it can breed feelings of distrust, intentional exclusion, futility, lack of meritocracy, and, for some, contempt. A judiciary that lacks diversity invites the public to question why that is the case. If Americans believe that the process for selecting judges is fundamentally unfair, the destabilizing danger is that the courts become perceived as illegitimate. 6ZS世界播

这不是保护宪法核心的个人自由的秘诀。如果法官既是总统的人口学和意识形态的反映,也是基本相同的参议院多数派的反映,公众可能还会对司法机构的客观性和独立制衡其他两个政府部门的权力的意愿感到怀疑。多样性是美国的自然状态,当这种多样性没有在董事会和我们的法院等权力场所得到反映时,它可能会滋生不信任、故意排斥、徒劳、缺乏精英管理的感觉,对一些人来说,还会产生蔑视。缺乏多样性的司法机构会让公众质疑为什么会出现这种情况。如果美国人认为选择法官的过程从根本上是不公平的,那么不稳定的危险就是法院变得被认为是不合法的。6ZS世界播


A judicial robe is a powerful and provocative symbol of justice in the United States. If America wants federal courts that instill trust and reflect democratic principles, it must work harder to ensure that the people who wear those robes resemble the full range of people in America’s communities. 6ZS世界播

在美国,司法袍是正义的有力和具有挑衅性的象征。如果美国想要联邦法院灌输信任并反映民主原则,它必须更加努力地确保穿着这些长袍的人与美国社区中的所有人相似。6ZS世界播

© 2016 世界播 www.shijiebobao.com 中国互联网举报中心 京ICP证140141号 鄂ICP备18018000号-1
违法和不良信息举报: