关于中世纪,大多数人不知道的最令人不安的事实是什么? Aleksa Petrovic 这样说...

2020-11-19 14:03

What are the most disturbing facts about the Middle Ages that most people do not know? 83N世界播

关于中世纪,大多数人不知道的最令人不安的事实是什么?83N世界播


Answered by: Aleksa Petrovic,knows French 83N世界播

回答者:亚历克萨·彼得罗维奇(Aleksa Petrovic),懂法语83N世界播


Do you love your eyes? Of course you do, how else would you find your way around in this world. You surely love them so much that if you were blinded, you would be considered a handicap. That’s the exact same logic Medieval leaders used when they wanted to undermine others claim or to simply punish someone they hate in psychotic way. 83N世界播

你爱你的眼睛吗?你当然知道,否则你怎么能在这个世界上找到你的路呢?你肯定非常爱他们,如果你失明了,你会被认为是一个残疾人。这与中世纪领导人在想要贬低他人时所用的逻辑一模一样,或者仅仅是用精神病的方式惩罚他们所憎恨的人。83N世界播


In Middle Age, power comes from God. Since God is perfect, his emissaries in form of Pope/Patriarch and Kings need to be perfect too. That means in order for ruler to be eligible to rule, he must be physically healthy. Following that logic, the best way to eliminate rival is to cut his body part as a proof he is not fit to rule. 83N世界播

在中世纪,权力来自上帝。既然上帝是完美的,他以教皇/族长和国王的形式的使者也需要完美。这意味着,为了让统治者有资格执政,他必须身体健康。按照这一逻辑,消灭对手的最好方法是切开他的身体部位,以证明他不适合统治。83N世界播


83N世界播


You can cut his penis and make him an eunuch and thus unable to have an heir, you can cut his nose like it was the case with Emperor Justinian II, the only Byzantine Emperor to defy this rule, but the best way is to blind him. That way he can’t know who is he talking to or lead an army. If that’s not enough, know that it is extremely painful process with permanent damage. The idea for blinding probably comes from Christian martyrs who were often tortured trough gouging their eyes out. 83N世界播

你可以割掉他的阴茎,让他成为太监,从而无法有继承人,你可以割掉他的鼻子,就像割断他的鼻子一样,就像查士丁尼二世皇帝那样,他是唯一一个无视这一规则的拜占庭皇帝,但最好的方法是把他弄瞎。这样他就不能知道他在和谁说话或者在领导一支军队。如果这还不够,要知道这是一个极其痛苦的过程,会造成永久性的损害。致盲的想法可能来自基督教殉道者,他们经常被折磨,被挖出眼睛。83N世界播


83N世界播


There are two ways to blind someone. One is by pressing hot iron into their eyes, until they can’t see anything. It is extremely painful, but the problem is that victim may recover. This is why many paintings of the saints miss eyes, because it was believed that painting of the eyes of the saints can cure blindness. In that case, the most effective way is to simply gouge their eyes. 83N世界播

有两种方法可以使人失明。一种是把热熨斗按进他们的眼睛,直到他们什么也看不见。这是非常痛苦的,但问题是受害者可能会康复。这就是为什么许多圣人画没有看到眼睛,因为人们相信画圣人的眼睛可以治愈失明。在这种情况下,最有效的方法就是简单地挖出他们的眼睛。83N世界播


83N世界播


83N世界播


There are many examples of blinding someone throughout history. The first example is the legendary Byzantine General Belisarius. He served Emperor Justinian and reconquered in his name Africa, Italy and some parts of Hispania. However, Emperor never fully trusted him and after his conquests he imprisoned him supposedely for conspiracies. According to some sources, he was stripped from everything including his sight, and left to die as blind beggar on the street. 83N世界播

纵观历史,致盲的例子不胜枚举。第一个例子是传说中的拜占庭将军贝利萨留斯。他为查士丁尼皇帝效力,并以他的名义重新征服了非洲、意大利和西班牙的部分地区。然而,皇帝从来没有完全信任他,在他被征服后,他被认为是以阴谋的罪名监禁他。根据一些消息来源,他被剥夺了一切,包括他的视力,并被留在街上作为盲人乞丐死去。83N世界播


83N世界播


Another example is after Battle of Belasica where Emperor Basil II got his name the Bulgarslayer. He killed many en route, but many more were trapped and surrendered. Emperor Samuilo was lucky at first to escape until he saw the remaining of his army. The problem wasn’t that prisoners were executed, it was far worse. Basil took entire army, blinded every soldier by gouging their eyes and sent them home. Every 100th soldier was allowed with one eye so he can lead other 99 of his comrades home. This horrible display destroyed entire manpower of Bulgarian Empire, had Emperor Samuilo die out of heart attack and collapsing First Bulgarian Empire in the process and made Principality of Serbia and Kingdom of Croatia offer vassalage just in case Emperor Basil II even consider invading them. 83N世界播

另一个例子是在贝拉西卡战役之后,巴兹尔二世皇帝得名“屠牛士”。他在途中杀死了许多人,但更多的人被困并投降。萨穆伊洛皇帝起初很幸运地逃脱了,直到他看到他的军队剩下了。问题不是囚犯被处决,而是更糟糕的情况。巴兹尔夺走了整个军队,用挖眼睛的方法把每个士兵都弄瞎了,然后把他们送回了家。每100名士兵被允许只有一只眼睛,这样他就可以带领其他99名战友回家。这一可怕的表演摧毁了保加利亚帝国的全部人力,导致萨穆伊洛皇帝死于心脏病发作,并在此过程中瓦解了第一保加利亚帝国,并使塞尔维亚公国和克罗地亚共和国提供附庸,以防巴兹尔二世皇帝考虑入侵他们。83N世界播


83N世界播


Funny enough, blinding also partly lead to Byzantine collapse. Venice was an ally of Byzantines, but also a rival. At one point, the war broke out and man by the name of Enrico Dandolo was captured. He was blinded with sharp metal. This would make Enrico hate “Empire of Greeks” with all his heart and would vow to make them pay for it. As fate wanted it, he became Il Doge and persuaded Crusaders to attack Zara and finally Constantinople and both were successful. 83N世界播

有趣的是,盲目也在一定程度上导致了拜占庭式的崩溃。威尼斯是拜占庭的盟友,但也是对手。战争一度爆发,一个名叫恩里科·丹多罗(Enrico Dandolo)的人被俘。他被锋利的金属弄瞎了眼睛。这会让恩里科发自内心地憎恨“希腊帝国”,并发誓要让他们为此付出代价。正如命运所愿,他成为了伊尔·多格,并说服十字军进攻扎拉,最后攻打君士坦丁堡,两人都成功了。83N世界播


83N世界播


Of course, Byzantines weren’t the only one to do that. King Stephan of Hungary blinded anyone who he considered a threat, but all is forgiven since he gave Christianity to Hungary. Blindness was standard punishment in the army for desertion and even some unfortunate Abbasid Caliphs ended up blind by their Turkish bodyguards before being executed. I assume that’s probably why Ottomans forbade spilling the blood of dynasty and forced execution by strangling. So next time, take a moment to appreciate both of your functional eyes inside your head and the fact you are not fighting in a power struggle or that mutilation is a war crime by Geneva Convention. 83N世界播

当然,拜占庭并不是唯一这样做的人。匈牙利国王斯蒂芬把任何他认为是威胁的人都弄瞎了,但自从他把基督教传给匈牙利以来,一切都是可以原谅的。失明是军队对逃兵的标准惩罚,甚至一些不幸的阿巴斯王朝哈里发人在被处决之前也被他们的土耳其保镖弄瞎了眼睛。我想这可能就是为什么奥斯曼帝国禁止屠杀王朝的鲜血,并以勒死的方式强制执行死刑的原因。所以下一次,花点时间来欣赏你头脑中的两只功能正常的眼睛,以及你不是在权力斗争中战斗的事实,或者日内瓦公约规定的肢解是战争罪的事实。83N世界播


83N世界播

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