自奥斯曼帝国苏丹穆罕默德二世以来,兄弟会为什么是合法和传统的? John Oparinde 这样说...

2020-11-18 00:26

Why were fratricides legal and traditional since Sultan Mehmet II of Ottoman Empire? JEZ世界播

自奥斯曼帝国苏丹穆罕默德二世(Sultan Mehmet II)以来,兄弟会为什么是合法和传统的?JEZ世界播


Answered by: John Oparinde,Reads articles and books about the Ottomans JEZ世界播

回答者:约翰·奥帕林德(John Oparinde),阅读有关奥斯曼帝国的文章和书籍JEZ世界播


In the Ottoman Empire, every male born into the House of Osman through the patrilineal line had a claim to the throne. Therefore, if an Ottoman prince (shezade) had enough support, he could legitimately overthrow the reigning Sultan. JEZ世界播

在奥斯曼帝国,每一个通过父系出生到奥斯曼家族的男性都有权继承王位。因此,如果奥斯曼帝国的王子(谢扎德)有足够的支持,他就可以合法地推翻在位的苏丹。JEZ世界播


This also meant that the empire could fall into civil war if the Sultan died and was survived by multiple sons, each with an equal claim. That is exactly what happened during the Ottoman Interregnum, the civil war that divided the empire after the death of Bayezid I (r. 1389–1402). It lasted roughly from 1402 to 1413. JEZ世界播

这也意味着,如果苏丹去世,留下多个儿子,每个儿子都有平等的权利,帝国可能会陷入内战。这正是奥斯曼帝国间歇期(Ottoman Interregnum)发生的事情,这场内战在巴耶齐德一世(1389-1402年)去世后分裂了帝国。它大约从1402年持续到1413年。JEZ世界播


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Portrait depicting Bayezid I being held captive by the Central Asian warlord Timur, who defeated and captured the Sultan at the Battle of Ankara. Bayezid would die in captivity, sparking a civil war between his sons. JEZ世界播

一幅描绘巴耶齐德一世被中亚军阀帖木儿俘虏的肖像,帖木儿在安卡拉战役中击败并俘虏了苏丹。巴耶齐德会在囚禁中死去,引发他儿子之间的内战。JEZ世界播


The fratricide policy was meant as a solution to this problem. When a new Sultan ascended to the throne, he would have his brothers executed—if he hadn’t killed them already—in order to preserve the empire’s stability. With potential rival claimants dead, there was far less chance that the Sultan would be deposed or that there would be a civil war. JEZ世界播

自相残杀政策就是为了解决这个问题。当新苏丹登基时,他会处死他的兄弟们--如果他还没有杀死他们的话--以维护帝国的稳定。随着潜在的竞争对手的死亡,苏丹被罢免或爆发内战的可能性要小得多。JEZ世界播


Although Mehmed II (r. 1451–1481) put the practice into law, it had origins far earlier than his time. The first sultan to kill his brothers after ascending the throne may have been Murad I (r. 1362–1389). The poet Ahmedi, writing in about 1400, tells of how Murad’s brothers “became enemies to him” and were thus “all destroyed by his sword.” JEZ世界播

尽管穆罕默德二世(1451-1481年)将这一做法付诸实施,但它的起源远远早于他那个时代。登基后第一个杀死兄弟的苏丹可能是穆拉德一世(1362-1389年在位)。诗人艾哈迈迪(Ahmedi)写于1400年左右,讲述了穆拉德的兄弟们如何“成为他的敌人”,因此“全都被他的剑摧毁”。JEZ世界播


The practice of a sultan or shezade killing his brothers would continue to remain a factor in Ottoman successions. Immediately after the Battle of Kosovo in 1389, at which Murad died, his son Bayezid would have his brother Yakub strangled in his tent. Bayezid’s sons would fight and kill each other during the Interregnum. The final winner of the civil war, Mehmed I (r. 1413–1421), won after defeating and executing his brother, Musa. JEZ世界播

苏丹或谢扎德杀害他的兄弟的做法将继续是奥斯曼帝国继位的一个因素。1389年科索沃战役一结束,穆拉德就去世了,他的儿子巴耶齐德(Bayezid)会在他的帐篷里勒死他的兄弟雅库布(Yakub)。在间歇期,巴耶齐德的儿子们会互相打架,互相残杀。内战的最后胜利者,穆罕默德一世(1413-1421年在位),在击败并处决了他的兄弟穆萨之后获胜。JEZ世界播


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16th century European engraving of Musa and Suleiman, two of the rival princes who fought each other during the Ottoman Interregnum. This civil war brought instability and division to the empire, which the Ottomans wished to avoid. JEZ世界播

16世纪欧洲雕刻的穆萨和苏莱曼,这两位敌对的王子在奥斯曼帝国间歇期互相争斗。这场内战给帝国带来了不稳定和分裂,这是奥斯曼帝国希望避免的。JEZ世界播


The Ottomans wanted their empire to remain indivisible. There would be no division into appanages that the Mongol Empire experienced after Genghis Khan. And there would definitely be no complex series of dynastic civil wars we would see in the War of the Roses. So to maintain one stable empire under only one sultan, the fratricide policy emerged. JEZ世界播

奥斯曼帝国希望他们的帝国保持不可分割。蒙古帝国不会像成吉思汗之后经历的那样分割成领地。而且肯定不会有我们在玫瑰战争中看到的一系列复杂的王朝内战。因此,为了在只有一个苏丹的统治下维持一个稳定的帝国,自相残杀的政策应运而生。JEZ世界播

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