关于中世纪和中世纪,有哪些事情可能会让我感到惊讶? Elena House 的回答火了

2020-10-14 18:17

What are some things that might surprise me about the Medieval Era and Middle Ages? hoG世界播

关于中世纪和中世纪,有哪些事情可能会让我感到惊讶?hoG世界播


Answered by: Elena House,Tell it to the horse marines when they're riding at anchor. (Old slang is fun.) hoG世界播

回答:埃琳娜·豪斯(Elena House),当海军陆战队骑马抛锚时,告诉他们这一点。(古老的俚语很有趣。)hoG世界播


The employment rate of women: almost all women worked during this period. Certain terms for women (e.g. spinster, distaff) actually denote jobs—jobs so frequently held by women that they became synonymous. hoG世界播

妇女就业率:几乎所有妇女都在此期间工作。某些针对女性的术语(例如,老处女、双职工)实际上指的是工作--女性经常从事的工作,以至于它们成了同义词。hoG世界播


The idea of idle, unemployed women is a modern one, indicative of a wealthy culture: being able to afford to maintain an idle family member is an aspirational luxury. This level of wealth was extremely rare in western civilization until many centuries after the Middle Ages. (The same can be said of child labor.) hoG世界播

闲置、失业女性的想法是现代的,代表着富裕的文化:有能力养活一个闲散的家庭成员是一种令人向往的奢侈品。这样的财富水平在西方文明中是极其罕见的,直到中世纪以后的许多个世纪。(童工也可以这样说。)。hoG世界播


Peasant/serf/yeoman class women performed similar types of agricultural labor as peasant/serf/yeoman men. hoG世界播

农民/农奴/自耕农阶级妇女与农民/农奴/自耕农男子从事类似类型的农业劳动。hoG世界播


hoG世界播


Tradesmen/craftsmen class women helped run the business or owned it outright, and the wives of artisans & craftsmen often had the right to take over the business on their husband’s death; that female farrier/blacksmith in A Knight’s Tale was actually representative of something that happened relatively frequently. A few other trades that women regularly engaged in include: hoG世界播

商人/工匠阶层的女性帮助经营或完全拥有企业,工匠和工匠的妻子往往有权在丈夫去世后接管企业;《骑士故事》中的女铁匠/铁匠实际上代表了一些相对频繁发生的事情。女性经常从事的其他几个行业包括:hoG世界播


Apothecary hoG世界播

药剂师。hoG世界播


Armorer hoG世界播

阿莫尔。hoG世界播


Barber-surgeon hoG世界播

理发师-外科医生。hoG世界播


Midwife hoG世界播

接生婆。hoG世界播


Chandler hoG世界播

钱德勒。hoG世界播


Baker hoG世界播

贝克。hoG世界播


Beekeeper hoG世界播

养蜂人。hoG世界播


Brewer hoG世界播

布鲁尔。hoG世界播


Jeweler hoG世界播

珠宝商。hoG世界播


Gold/silver/copper smith hoG世界播

金/银/铜铁匠。hoG世界播


Carpenter hoG世界播

木匠。hoG世界播


Shipwright hoG世界播

造船工人。hoG世界播


Door-maker hoG世界播

制门人。hoG世界播


Gravel-digger hoG世界播

挖砂机。hoG世界播


Mason hoG世界播

梅森。hoG世界播


Spurrier hoG世界播

纯净器。hoG世界播


Tailor hoG世界播

裁缝。hoG世界播


Cordwainer (shoemaker) and Cobbler (shoe repairer) hoG世界播

鞋匠(鞋匠)和鞋匠(修鞋工)。hoG世界播


Crusader (both as combatants and in support positions) hoG世界播

十字军战士(战斗人员和支援岗位)。hoG世界播


Lawyer hoG世界播

律师。hoG世界播


Author/romance writer hoG世界播

作家/浪漫作家。hoG世界播


hoG世界播


hoG世界播


Merchant class women worked side by side with their male relatives in the shops. hoG世界播

商人阶层的妇女与她们的男性亲戚在商店里并肩工作。hoG世界播


hoG世界播


The daughters and wives of artists participated in the prep work, and a few were even taken on as apprentices, becoming artists in their own right. Women in religious institutions were often instructed as scribes and created artwork, usually in the form of illuminations, the predominant form of painting at the time. (The following are a couple of examples of women’s medieval artwork, both containing self-portraits of the artist:) hoG世界播

艺术家的女儿和妻子参与了准备工作,甚至有几个人被收为学徒,成为了自己的艺术家。宗教机构中的妇女经常作为抄写员接受指导,并创作艺术品,通常是以照明的形式,这是当时主要的绘画形式。(以下是几个女性中世纪艺术品的例子,都包含艺术家的自画像:)。hoG世界播


hoG世界播


hoG世界播


The women of minor gentility had a list of chores a mile long, generally revolving around home maintenance and clothing and feeding their dependants, but extending into agricultural duties as well. Their husbands were often gone for extended periods, so their basic job was to take over as head of the household, and supervise the employees, tenants, and dependants who worked to maintain the family property. hoG世界播

文雅程度较低的妇女有一张长达一英里的家务清单,一般围绕着家庭维护、衣着和养活她们的家属,但也延伸到农业职责。他们的丈夫经常长时间外出,所以他们的基本工作是接任户主,监督维护家庭财产的雇员、房客和受抚养人。hoG世界播


hoG世界播


The women of the nobility tended to either send their daughters to religious institutions (where they often did a variety of types of manual labor) or train them in estate management, or both. They may or may not have been allowed to hunt, but this was dependant on rank rather than on sex. Again, their husbands were often gone for months or years at a time, so their job was to act as head of the household, and basically perform the same duties that a male member of the nobility would, including everything from payroll accountancy to writing legal documents to organizing and leading military actions to defend their property. The women were often as literate as or more literate than their husbands. hoG世界播

贵族妇女往往要么把女儿送到宗教机构(在那里她们经常从事各种类型的体力劳动),要么对她们进行遗产管理方面的培训,或者两者兼而有之。他们可能被允许狩猎,也可能不被允许狩猎,但这取决于等级而不是性别。同样,她们的丈夫经常一次离开几个月或几年,所以他们的工作是充当户主,基本上履行与贵族男性成员相同的职责,包括从工资会计到撰写法律文件,再到组织和领导保卫财产的军事行动。这些妇女的识字率往往与她们的丈夫不相上下,甚至更有识字率。hoG世界播


hoG世界播


The women in convents and other religious institutions, whether they intended to actually stay there long-term or not—many merely passed through; among other things, convents often acted as boarding schools for upper class girls—did all sorts of manual labor, from scrubbing floors to manufacturing fabric to farming & animal husbandry to butchery to candlemaking and beyond. Religious communities were like towns, with most of the major trades present. hoG世界播

修道院和其他宗教机构的妇女,无论她们是否真的打算在那里长期居住-许多人只是路过;修道院经常充当上流社会女孩的寄宿学校-从事各种体力劳动,从擦洗地板到制造布料,到耕种和畜牧业,从屠宰到蜡烛制造等等。宗教团体就像城镇一样,大多数主要行业都在这里。hoG世界播


hoG世界播


When it comes right down to it, the list of women who didn’t work during the Middle Ages is so short that I’m having trouble thinking of anyone to add to it. The wealthy disabled would probably qualify, although only in the case of severe impairment; the workload of the husband-seeking young noblewoman would temporarily go down a bit to allow time for preening & display; women approaching their deathbeds might get a bit of a break, or they might just die in harness, as it were. hoG世界播

归根结底,中世纪没有工作的女性名单如此之短,以至于我很难想出谁来补充这个名单。富有的残疾人可能会有资格,尽管只有在严重残疾的情况下;寻找丈夫的年轻贵妇的工作量会暂时降低一点,以便有时间整理和展示;临近临终的妇女可能会得到一点休息,或者可以说,她们只是死在马具上。hoG世界播


Even into the Victorian & Edwardian eras, the vast majority of women in the western world worked; it was only the highest classes who could afford to maintain non-working women. Being able to provide for your family so well that your wife didn’t have to work was a loving (and/or socially ambitious) dream that went unattained by most husbands. Considering the back-breaking nature of the work most women did, it’s easy to understand why their husbands wanted to spare them that. Usually when you found an unemployed woman, her husband was also too wealthy to work, though both would often still do what we might call ‘events planning’ today. hoG世界播

即使进入维多利亚和爱德华七世时代,西方世界的绝大多数女性都在工作;只有最高阶层才能养活不工作的女性。能够很好地养活你的家庭,以至于你的妻子不必工作,这是一个大多数丈夫都没有实现的充满爱心(和/或社会雄心勃勃)的梦想。考虑到大多数女性所做工作的劳累性质,很容易理解为什么她们的丈夫不想让她们这样做。通常情况下,当你找到一名失业妇女时,她的丈夫也太富有了,无法工作,尽管他们两人在今天仍然经常做我们可能称之为“事件策划”的事情。hoG世界播


The modern image of the barefoot & pregnant, bon-bon eating housewife that feminists pooh-pooh is a historical flash in the pan; it reflects something that almost never happened until recent periods of unprecedented prosperity, because it requires a level of prosperity that very few reached. hoG世界播

被女权主义者唾弃的赤脚、怀孕、吃得很好的家庭主妇的现代形象是历史上的昙花一现;它反映了一些几乎从未发生过的事情,直到最近一段前所未有的繁荣时期,因为它需要达到很少有人达到的繁荣水平。hoG世界播

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