青少年在检疫中表现出人意料地好

2020-10-14 08:01

Teens Did Surprisingly Well in Quarantine SAf世界播

青少年在检疫中表现出人意料地好SAf世界播


暂无SAf世界播


As the coronavirus pandemic took hold in the United States in March, work and school moved online, restaurants closed, and unemployment soared. The effects on mental health were immediate: U.S. adults in spring 2020 were three times more likely to experience mental distress, anxiety, or depression than adults in 2018 or 2019. According to data collected by the Census Bureau, anxiety and depression rose even further among American adults in June and July, after the killing of George Floyd sparked nationwide protests. SAf世界播

随着3月份冠状病毒在美国的流行,工作和学校转移到了网上,餐馆关门了,失业率飙升。对心理健康的影响是立竿见影的:2020年春季的美国成年人经历精神困扰、焦虑或抑郁的可能性是2018年或2019年成年人的三倍。根据人口普查局收集的数据,在乔治·弗洛伊德(George Floyd)被杀引发全国性抗议后,美国成年人的焦虑和抑郁情绪在6月和7月进一步上升。SAf世界播


How American teenagers fared during this time is more of a mystery. With teens no longer going to school and few able to see friends, many people worried about how teens would adapt. However, teens’ experiences of these events might differ from adults’, just as responses to the Great Depression varied by age. SAf世界播

美国青少年在这段时间过得怎么样更是个谜。由于青少年不再上学,很少有人能见到朋友,许多人担心青少年将如何适应。然而,青少年对这些事件的经历可能与成年人不同,就像对大萧条的反应随着年龄的不同而不同一样。SAf世界播


To better understand the experiences of teenagers during this unique time, my colleagues and I fielded a survey of 1,523 U.S. teens from May to July this year, asking about their mental health, family time, sleep, technology use, and views on the race-related protests and the police. We assessed mental well-being using four measures: life satisfaction, happiness, symptoms of depression, and loneliness. We then compared the 2020 teens’ responses with responses to identical questions from a similar survey in 2018. SAf世界播

为了更好地了解青少年在这一独特时期的经历,我和我的同事在今年5月至7月对1523名美国青少年进行了一项调查,询问他们的心理健康、家庭时间、睡眠、科技使用情况,以及对与种族相关的抗议活动和警察的看法。我们使用四个指标来评估心理健康:生活满意度、幸福感、抑郁症状和孤独感。然后,我们将2020年青少年的回答与2018年类似调查中对相同问题的回答进行了比较。SAf世界播


Surprisingly, teens’ mental health did not collectively suffer during the pandemic when the two surveys are compared. The percentage of teens who were depressed or lonely was actually lower in 2020 than in 2018, and the percentage who were unhappy or dissatisfied with life was only slightly higher. SAf世界播

令人惊讶的是,当两项调查进行比较时,青少年的心理健康并没有在大流行期间集体受到影响。2020年,抑郁或孤独的青少年比例实际上比2018年有所下降,而对生活不满意或不满意的比例仅略高。SAf世界播


This relatively positive picture for mental health occurred despite many of the challenges faced by the teens in our survey. Nearly one out of three teens (29 percent) knew someone diagnosed with COVID-19. More than one out of four (27 percent) said a parent had lost a job, and exactly one out of four was worried about their families having enough food to eat. Nearly two-thirds (63 percent) were worried about catching the virus, and two-thirds worried about not being able to see their friends. SAf世界播

尽管在我们的调查中,青少年面临着许多挑战,但这幅相对积极的精神健康图景还是出现了。近三分之一的青少年(29%)认识被诊断为新冠肺炎的人。超过四分之一(27%)的人表示,父母失去了工作,恰好四分之一的人担心家人吃不饱饭。近三分之二(63%)的人担心感染病毒,三分之二的人担心看不到朋友。SAf世界播


So why was teen mental health stable, or even better, during the pandemic? SAf世界播

那么,为什么青少年的心理健康在大流行期间是稳定的,甚至是更好的呢?SAf世界播


First, teens have been sleeping more during the pandemic, and teens who are sleep deprived are significantly more likely to suffer from depression. In 2018, only 55 percent of teens said they usually slept seven or more hours a night. During the pandemic, this jumped to 84 percent among those for whom school was still in session. With teens going to school online during the pandemic, they were likely able to sleep later in the morning than usual. When school is held in person, the large majority of middle and high schools begin classes before 8:30 a.m., and some as early as 7, requiring many students to get up very early to commute to school. This creates a mismatch between school schedules and the shift to a later circadian rhythm that occurs during biological puberty, when teens find it difficult to fall asleep earlier. Teens who were able to sleep later during the early months of the pandemic might have improved their mental health. SAf世界播

首先,青少年在大流行期间睡眠更多,睡眠不足的青少年患抑郁症的可能性明显更大。2018年,只有55%的青少年表示,他们通常每晚睡7个小时或更多。在大流行期间,在那些仍在上课的人中,这一比例跃升至84%。由于青少年在大流行期间在网上上学,他们很可能能够比往常睡得晚。当学校当面上课时,绝大多数初中和高中在早上8:30之前开始上课,有些学校甚至早到7点就开始上课,这要求许多学生很早起床通勤上学。这就造成了课程表和生理青春期向晚些时候的昼夜节律的转变之间的不匹配,青春期青少年发现很难早点入睡。在大流行的头几个月里能够晚睡的青少年可能会改善他们的心理健康。SAf世界播


With many parents working from home and most outside activities canceled for both parents and teens, the majority of teens reported increased family time. With positive family relationships linked to better mental health, more family time might have mitigated any negative mental-health effects of the pandemic. Fifty-six percent of teens said they were spending more time talking with their parents than they had before the pandemic, and 54 percent said their families now ate dinner together more often. Forty-six percent reported spending more time with their siblings. Perhaps most striking, 68 percent of teens said their families had become closer during the pandemic. Family closeness was associated with mental health: Only 15 percent who said their families had become closer during the pandemic were depressed, compared with 27 percent of those who did not believe their families had become closer. SAf世界播

由于许多父母在家工作,父母和青少年的大多数户外活动都被取消,大多数青少年报告说,他们的家庭时间增加了。由于积极的家庭关系与更好的心理健康有关,更多的家庭时间可能会减轻大流行对心理健康的任何负面影响。56%的青少年表示,他们与父母交谈的时间比大流行前更多,54%的青少年表示,他们的家人现在更频繁地在一起吃晚饭。46%的人报告说,他们花在兄弟姐妹身上的时间更多。也许最令人震惊的是,68%的青少年表示,在大流行期间,他们的家人变得更加亲密。家庭亲密与心理健康有关:在大流行期间,只有15%的人说他们的家人变得更亲密了,相比之下,那些不相信自己的家人变得更亲密的人中,这一比例为27%。SAf世界播


Although the teen mental-health outcomes during quarantine were not as bleak as we might have supposed, the financial distress caused by the pandemic still had an impact. Twenty-five percent of the teens who reported that a parent had lost a job during the pandemic were depressed, compared with only 16 percent of those without parental job loss. Similarly, 26 percent of those worried about their families not having enough money were depressed, versus 13 percent who did not have this concern. Food insecurity was associated with the largest difference: Among teens who worried that their families would not have enough to eat, 33 percent were depressed, versus 14 percent of teens who were not worried about having enough food. SAf世界播

尽管隔离期间青少年的心理健康结果并不像我们想象的那样惨淡,但大流行造成的经济困境仍然产生了影响。在报告父母在大流行期间失去工作的青少年中,25%的人情绪低落,而在没有父母失业的青少年中,这一比例仅为16%。同样,那些担心家人没有足够的钱的人中有26%的人抑郁,而没有这种担忧的人只有13%。食品不安全与最大的差异有关:在担心家人吃不饱的青少年中,33%的人抑郁,而不担心食物不足的青少年中有14%。SAf世界播


Some of our most interesting findings had to do with teens’ use of technology. When the pandemic hit and quarantine began, teens were unable to spend time with friends or fellow students face-to-face. Electronic communication became the primary way teens could interact with people outside of their families. Given that screen time, especially time spent using social media, has been associated with mental-health issues in teens, we wanted to understand how technology affected their mental health in quarantine. SAf世界播

我们的一些最有趣的发现与青少年使用科技有关。当大流行袭击和隔离开始时,青少年无法与朋友或同学面对面相处。电子交流成为青少年与家庭以外的人互动的主要方式。鉴于屏幕时间,特别是使用社交媒体的时间,已经与青少年的心理健康问题联系在一起,我们想了解科技是如何影响他们在隔离期间的心理健康的。SAf世界播


To our surprise, teens’ technology use did not appear to increase dramatically during the pandemic when compared with 2018. Teens in quarantine were spending more time videochatting with friends and watching TV, videos, and movies on an electronic device. But they spent less time gaming, texting, and using social media. SAf世界播

令我们惊讶的是,与2018年相比,青少年在大流行期间的技术使用似乎并没有大幅增加。被隔离的青少年花更多的时间与朋友视频聊天,在电子设备上看电视、视频和电影。但他们玩游戏、发短信和使用社交媒体的时间更少。SAf世界播


We were surprised that social media, which is more connective, decreased, while passively watching television and videos increased during that same time. Teens might have primarily been using media as a form of distraction or to pass the long hours in quarantine, rather than predominantly seeking out more virtual connection with others. These trends are consistent with our findings regarding mental health, given that social-media use is more strongly associated with mental-health issues than are more passive types of media such as watching television or videos. SAf世界播

令我们惊讶的是,在这段时间里,更具连接性的社交媒体减少了,而被动地观看电视和视频的数量却增加了。青少年可能主要是将媒体作为一种分散注意力的形式,或者是为了消磨长时间的隔离时间,而不是主要寻求与他人建立更多的虚拟联系。这些趋势与我们关于心理健康的发现是一致的,因为社交媒体的使用与心理健康问题的关联比看电视或视频等更被动的媒体类型更强。SAf世界播


Of course, the line between connective and passive media is blurrier now than it once was. For example, YouTube, which is primarily a video-sharing site, is now social media, where users create and post videos, receive “response” videos in return, and comment on videos in an interactive way. In fact, a rising number of social-media apps integrate video into their connectivity. Snapchat, Instagram, and Facebook, for instance, were all originally photo- and message-sharing apps that now have video posting and sharing as main components. These sites/apps are often passively entertaining and connective. So teens might have been specifically using TV and videos as a twofold way to cope with pandemic-related anxiety. SAf世界播

当然,连接性媒体和被动式媒体之间的界限现在比以前更模糊了。例如,YouTube主要是一个视频分享网站,现在是社交媒体,用户可以在这里创建和发布视频,接收“回应”视频,并以互动的方式对视频进行评论。事实上,越来越多的社交媒体应用程序将视频集成到它们的连接中。例如,Snapchat、Instagram和Facebook最初都是照片和消息共享应用,现在都以视频发布和共享为主要组件。这些网站/应用程序通常是被动的娱乐性和连接性的。因此,青少年可能特别将电视和视频作为应对流行病相关焦虑的双重方式。SAf世界播


Another possible reason for the rise in video watching and videochatting online, and the decrease in texting, is that students on school campuses usually can’t stream videos or videochat during the day, as this would be disruptive of the school environment. But they often will text throughout the school day, as this form of connection is quick and silent. Teens also use the messaging features within video-rich apps in lieu of old-fashioned texting. SAf世界播

在线观看视频和视频聊天增加,短信减少的另一个可能原因是,校园里的学生通常不能在白天播放视频或视频聊天,因为这会破坏学校环境。但他们通常会在上学期间发短信,因为这种联系方式快速而无声。青少年还使用富视频应用程序中的短信功能,而不是老式的短信功能。SAf世界播


However, none of these interpretations minimizes the happy fact that teens were also sleeping more and spending more time with siblings and parents (including playing family games, going outside more with family, and eating family dinners), which might have displaced some of the time they would have spent using media. SAf世界播

然而,所有这些解释都没有低估一个令人高兴的事实,即青少年也睡得更多,花更多的时间与兄弟姐妹和父母在一起(包括玩家庭游戏,更多地与家人一起外出,吃家庭晚餐),这可能会取代他们本应花在使用媒体上的一些时间。SAf世界播


And although social-media use decreased on the whole, teens might have been using it more purposefully during quarantine. Previous research has found that using social media in more active, connective ways can be protective for mental health. About half the teens in our survey said they avoided using social media in passive ways such as scrolling through posts endlessly. And most striking, almost 80 percent of teens agreed that social media allowed them to connect with their friends during quarantine, and nearly 60 percent said they used social media to manage their anxiety about the pandemic. SAf世界播

尽管社交媒体的使用总体上有所减少,但青少年在隔离期间可能会更有目的地使用它。之前的研究发现,以更积极、更有联系的方式使用社交媒体可以保护心理健康。在我们的调查中,大约一半的青少年表示,他们避免以被动的方式使用社交媒体,比如没完没了地滚动帖子。最引人注目的是,近80%的青少年同意,社交媒体允许他们在隔离期间与朋友联系,近60%的青少年表示,他们使用社交媒体来管理他们对大流行的焦虑。SAf世界播


Overall, teens during the pandemic appear to have managed the challenges of 2020 with resilience, taking comfort in their families and the slower pace of life. Indeed, 53 percent of teens said that the experience made them feel stronger and more resilient. Although teens were worried about health, economic stressors, and the protests, these challenges were seemingly offset by changes in their lifestyle, especially increases in sleep and family time. And yet, depression, loneliness, and unhappiness are still at unacceptably high levels among American teens. Although the pandemic did not appear to worsen these trends, many teens are still in need of mental-health services, and the pandemic has not changed that reality. SAf世界播

总体而言,大流行期间的青少年似乎以韧性应对了2020年的挑战,对家人和较慢的生活节奏感到安慰。事实上,53%的青少年表示,这段经历让他们感觉更强大,更有弹性。尽管青少年担心健康、经济压力和抗议活动,但这些挑战似乎被他们生活方式的改变所抵消,特别是睡眠和家庭时间的增加。然而,在美国青少年中,抑郁、孤独和不快乐仍然处于令人无法接受的高水平。虽然大流行似乎没有恶化这些趋势,但许多青少年仍然需要心理健康服务,而大流行并没有改变这一现实。SAf世界播

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