体重并不总是在你的控制之内:为什么一些州优先考虑肥胖患者接种新冠肺炎疫苗

2021-03-07 00:23

'Weight isn't always within your control': Why some states are prioritizing obesity patients for the COVID-19 vaccine MJX世界播

体重并不总是在你的控制之内:为什么一些州优先考虑肥胖患者接种新冠肺炎疫苗MJX世界播


Patty Nece hasn’t been inside a retail store for an entire year. MJX世界播

帕蒂·尼斯已经整整一年没进过零售店了。MJX世界播


Even though most Virginia businesses reopened by July and grocery stores remained opened throughout the pandemic, the 62-year-old hasn't dared to step inside one since last March, as her obesity puts her at risk for severe COVID-19. MJX世界播

尽管弗吉尼亚州的大多数企业在7月份重新开业,杂货店在疫情爆发期间仍在营业,但这位62岁的女士自去年3月以来就不敢进入杂货店,因为她的肥胖使她面临严重新冠肺炎的风险。MJX世界播


Because of her disease, she’s eligible to get the vaccine and has an appointment for her first dose on Wednesday. While she’s looking forward to getting vaccinated, she’s also disappointed some Americans have criticized people with obesity who are prioritized to get the vaccine. MJX世界播

由于她的疾病,她有资格接种疫苗,并预约在周三接种第一剂疫苗。虽然她期待着接种疫苗,但她也对一些美国人批评优先接种疫苗的肥胖者感到失望。MJX世界播


“It displays a misunderstanding … weight isn’t always within your control,” said Nece, who is also the chairwoman of the Obesity Action Coalition. “Like many diseases, there’s personal responsibility involved but that’s not the end. The mantra of eat less and move more – which I’ve heard my entire life – isn’t the answer.” MJX世界播

“它显示一个误解…。体重并不总是在你的控制范围之内,“Ness说,她也是肥胖行动联盟的主席。“就像许多疾病一样,这涉及到个人责任,但这并不是结束。少吃多动的口头禅--这是我一生都在听的--并不是解决问题的办法。MJX世界播


In one instance, a news anchor for WTTG-TV in Washington, D.C., sent a tweet criticizing health officials for prioritizing obesity patients for the vaccine. MJX世界播

例如,华盛顿WTTG-TV的一位新闻主播发了一条推文,批评卫生官员优先考虑肥胖患者接种疫苗。MJX世界播


“I’m annoyed obese people of all ages get priority vaccine access before all essential workers,” Blake McCoy said in the since-deleted tweet. “Vaccinate all essential workers. Then obese.” MJX世界播

布莱克·麦考伊(Blake McCoy)在这条后来被删除的推文中说:“我对所有年龄段的肥胖者在所有基本工作人员之前优先获得疫苗感到恼火。”“为所有必需的工人接种疫苗。然后是肥胖。“。MJX世界播


The local station told the New York Daily News McCoy was “suspended pending further review” after deleting the offensive tweet and posting an apology on Twitter, but health experts say it’s another example of how weight bias permeates the health system and American society. MJX世界播

当地电视台在接受《纽约每日新闻》采访时表示,麦考伊在删除了这条冒犯性的推文并在推特上致歉后,被停职,等待进一步审查。但健康专家表示,这是体重偏见渗透到医疗系统和美国社会的又一个例子。MJX世界播


Obesity and COVID-19 MJX世界播

肥胖与新冠肺炎。MJX世界播


Roughly 40% of adult Americans have obesity, according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention data from 2018. Studies have shown people with obesity are more likely to have worse outcomes from COVID-19 than others with a lower body mass index (BMI). MJX世界播

根据疾病控制和预防中心(Centers For Disease Control And Prevention)2018年的数据,大约40%的美国成年人患有肥胖症。研究表明,与其他体重指数较低的人相比,肥胖患者服用新冠肺炎的结果更差。MJX世界播


Researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill found people with a BMI above 30 had a 113% higher risk for hospitalization, a 74% higher risk for ICU admission and a 48% higher risk of death, according to a study published in August 2020 in Obesity Reviews. MJX世界播

北卡罗来纳大学教堂山分校(University Of North Carolina At Chapel Hill)的研究人员发现,BMI超过30的人住院的风险高113%,住ICU的风险高74%,死亡风险高48%。MJX世界播


At first, health experts believed people with obesity were more at risk for severe COVID-19 because the disease also is associated with numerous underlying risk factors including hypertension, heart disease, type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney and liver disease. MJX世界播

起初,健康专家认为肥胖者患严重新冠肺炎的风险更高,因为这种疾病还与许多潜在的风险因素有关,包括高血压、心脏病、2型糖尿病以及慢性肾脏和肝脏疾病。MJX世界播


But after controlling for those factors, researchers found people with obesity were still at higher risk for COVID-19, said Dr. Rekha Kumar, medical director of the American Board of Obesity Medicine and associate professor of clinical medicine at Weill Cornell Medicine. This may be partly due to the excess fat tissue producing more inflammation, she said. MJX世界播

但美国肥胖医学委员会医学主任、威尔·康奈尔医学院临床医学副教授雷卡·库马尔博士说,在控制了这些因素后,研究人员发现肥胖患者患新冠肺炎的风险仍然较高。她说,这可能部分是由于多余的脂肪组织产生了更多的炎症。MJX世界播


“People’s bodies are mounting such a severe inflammatory response (to COVID-19), and that response is already existing at a baseline in obesity,” Kumar said. “So, when you add another stimulus, they’re getting even sicker.” MJX世界播

库马尔说:“人们的身体正在(对新冠肺炎)产生如此严重的炎症反应,而这种反应已经存在于肥胖的基线上。”“因此,当你再增加一项刺激措施时,他们的病情会变得更加严重。”MJX世界播


Some patients also may suffer from obesity hypoventilation syndrome, a breathing disorder that causes someone to have too much carbon dioxide and too little oxygen in the blood, according to the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. MJX世界播

根据国家心肺和血液研究所的说法,一些患者还可能患有肥胖低通气综合征,这是一种呼吸障碍,导致某人血液中二氧化碳过多而氧气过少。MJX世界播


“It’s not from carrying the weight,” said Dr. Ethan Lazarus, president-elect of the Obesity Medicine Association. “Their lungs are restricted so they’re not able to expand to get the oxygen they need.” This puts them at further risk for COVID-19 complications. MJX世界播

肥胖医学会候任主席伊桑·拉扎鲁斯博士说:“这不是因为负重。”“他们的肺受到限制,无法扩张以获得所需的氧气。”这使他们面临着进一步患新冠肺炎并发症的风险。MJX世界播


Patients with obesity also have an impaired immune system, health experts say, which not only makes them more prone to infectious diseases but also makes it harder to fight them off. MJX世界播

健康专家说,肥胖症患者的免疫系统也受到了损害,这不仅使他们更容易感染传染病,也使他们更难与之抗争。MJX世界播


Obesity can change the metabolic state of immune cells and how they function, said Dr. Nancie MacIver, associate professor at Duke University School of Medicine. The excess inflammation may be an indication the immune system is dysfunctional. MJX世界播

杜克大学医学院(Duke University School Of Medicine)副教授南希·麦克弗(Nancie MacIver)博士说,肥胖可以改变免疫细胞的新陈代谢状态及其功能。过度的炎症可能是免疫系统功能失调的迹象。MJX世界播


Obesity and the COVID vaccine MJX世界播

肥胖与柯萨奇病毒疫苗。MJX世界播


Obesity patients' altered immune system has led experts to worry about their response to the COVID-19 vaccine, especially as past studies have suggested they may not respond as well to influenza vaccines. MJX世界播

肥胖症患者免疫系统的改变导致专家担心他们对新冠肺炎疫苗的反应,特别是过去的研究表明,他们对流感疫苗的反应可能不会那么好。MJX世界播


Researchers at UNC Chapel Hill found that among vaccinated individuals, nearly 10% of patients with obesity were infected with the flu compared to about 5% of participants with a lower BMI, according to a 2017 study published in the International Journal of Obesity. MJX世界播

根据2017年发表在《国际肥胖杂志》上的一项研究,北卡罗来纳大学教堂山分校的研究人员发现,在接种疫苗的个体中,近10%的肥胖患者感染了流感,相比之下,体重指数较低的参与者中,这一比例约为5%。MJX世界播


But health experts say obesity patients shouldn’t be discouraged, and urge them to get the COVID-19 vaccine when it is available to them. MJX世界播

但健康专家表示,肥胖患者不应气馁,并敦促他们在有新冠肺炎疫苗时接种。MJX世界播


“People should understand the difference between not effective and reduced efficacy,” Kumar said. “Even if a vaccine works less, it’s still better than somebody becoming critically ill in an ICU.” MJX世界播

库马尔说:“人们应该理解无效和降低疗效之间的区别。”“即使疫苗效果较差,也比一个人在重症监护病房得重病要好。”MJX世界播


Nece worries, as a patient with obesity, others like her may delay care during the pandemic due to decades of weight bias in the health care system. MJX世界播

Ness担心,作为一名肥胖症患者,其他像她一样的人可能会因为卫生保健系统数十年来的体重偏见而推迟大流行期间的治疗。MJX世界播


Obesity Awareness Week and weight bias MJX世界播

肥胖意识周与体重偏差。MJX世界播


Weight bias in the medical setting manifests itself in a myriad of ways, from having ill-fitted gowns and weighing patients in public, to misdiagnosing a life-threatening illness due to a doctor’s inability to look past a person's excess weight. MJX世界播

医疗环境中的体重偏差表现在各种各样的方面,从穿着不合身的礼服,在公共场合给病人称体重,到由于医生无法忽视一个人的超重而误诊了危及生命的疾病。MJX世界播


After years of weight lecturing and bad experiences at the doctor’s offices, many patients internalize that bias and avoid treatment or preventative care altogether, said James Zervios, vice president of marketing and communications at the Obesity Action Coalition. MJX世界播

肥胖行动联盟负责营销和沟通的副总裁詹姆斯·泽维奥斯(James Zervios)说,在多年的减肥讲座和在医生办公室的糟糕经历之后,许多患者内化了这种偏见,完全避免了治疗或预防性护理。MJX世界播


Nece delayed her mammogram by 15 years to avoid the stress and embarrassment of a doctor’s visit. MJX世界播

Ness将她的乳房X光检查推迟了15年,以避免去看医生的压力和尴尬。MJX世界播


“You get tired of dealing with it," she said. "You get tired of the shame and blame that gets heaped on you and it doesn’t help.” MJX世界播

“你厌倦了处理这件事,”她说。“你厌倦了堆积在你身上的羞耻和责备,这对你没有任何帮助。”MJX世界播


But during Obesity Care Week, which ends Saturday, advocates like Zervios and Nece want to spread awareness that obesity is not just a behavioral disease and can be influenced by genetics, hormones and even medications. MJX世界播

但在周六结束的肥胖护理周期间,Zervios和Ness等倡导者希望传播这样的意识:肥胖不仅是一种行为疾病,还可能受到遗传、激素甚至药物的影响。MJX世界播


They also urge those who are suffering with obesity to seek help from health care providers despite weight bias, especially during the pandemic. MJX世界播

他们还敦促那些患有肥胖症的人向医疗保健提供者寻求帮助,尽管存在体重偏见,特别是在大流行期间。MJX世界播


“We encourage people to remember that they are worth the care that they deserve and don’t take that kind of bias and deal with it,” Zervios said. “Everybody deserves to be treated with dignity and respect.” MJX世界播

泽维奥斯说:“我们鼓励人们记住,他们值得得到他们应得的照顾,不要带着这种偏见去处理它。”“每个人都应该得到尊严和尊重。”MJX世界播

相关阅读
© 2016 世界播 www.shijiebobao.com 中国互联网举报中心 京ICP证140141号 鄂ICP备18018000号-1
违法和不良信息举报: