随着病毒变得越来越隐秘,疫苗制造商重新考虑战斗计划

2021-01-26 22:13

As Virus Grows Stealthier, Vaccine Makers Reconsider Battle Plans dii世界播

随着病毒变得越来越隐秘,疫苗制造商重新考虑战斗计划dii世界播


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A participant in a Novavax COVID-19 vaccine trial receives an injection at Wits RHI Shandukani Research Centre in Johannesburg on Dec. 8, 2020. (Joao Silva/The New York Times) dii世界播

2020年12月8日,约翰内斯堡Wits RHI Shandukani研究中心,一名诺瓦克斯新冠肺炎疫苗试验的参与者接受注射。(Joao Silva/《纽约时报》)dii世界播


As the coronavirus assumes contagious new forms around the world, two drugmakers reported on Monday that their vaccines, while still effective, offer less protection against one variant and began revising plans to turn back an evolving pathogen that has killed more than 2 million people. dii世界播

随着冠状病毒在世界各地呈现传染性的新形式,两家制药商周一报告称,他们的疫苗虽然仍然有效,但对一种变种的保护作用较弱,并开始修改计划,以逆转一种不断进化的病原体,这种病原体已导致200多万人死亡。dii世界播


The news from Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech underscored a realization by scientists that the virus is changing more quickly than once thought, and may well continue to develop in ways that help it elude the vaccines being deployed worldwide. dii世界播

来自莫德纳和辉瑞生物科技公司的消息突显了科学家们的一个认识,即病毒的变化速度比人们想象的要快,而且很可能会继续发展,帮助它避开全球正在部署的疫苗。dii世界播


The announcements arrived even as President Joe Biden banned travel to the United States from South Africa beginning Saturday, in hopes of stanching the spread of one variant. And Merck, a leading drug company, on Monday abandoned two experimental coronavirus vaccines altogether, saying they did not produce a strong enough immune response against the original version of the virus. dii世界播

尽管美国总统乔·拜登(Joe Biden)从周六开始禁止从南非前往美国,希望遏制一种变种的传播,但这一声明还是出台了。周一,领先的制药公司默克公司(Merck)完全放弃了两种实验性冠状病毒疫苗,称它们对最初版本的病毒没有产生足够强的免疫反应。dii世界播


Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech both said their vaccines were effective against new variants of the coronavirus discovered in Britain and South Africa. But they are slightly less protective against the variant in South Africa, which may be more adept at dodging antibodies in the bloodstream. dii世界播

现代和辉瑞生物科技公司都表示,他们的疫苗对在英国和南非发现的冠状病毒新变种有效。但在南非,他们对这种变种的保护略有减弱,这种变种可能更善于躲避血液中的抗体。dii世界播


The vaccines are the only ones authorized for emergency use in the United States. dii世界播

这些疫苗是美国唯一被授权紧急使用的疫苗。dii世界播


As a precaution, Moderna has begun developing a new form of its vaccine that could be used as a booster shot against the variant in South Africa. “We’re doing it today to be ahead of the curve, should we need to,” Dr. Tal Zaks, Moderna’s chief medical officer, said in an interview. “I think of it as an insurance policy.” dii世界播

作为预防措施,现代疫苗已经开始开发一种新形式的疫苗,可以用来在南非加强对这种变种的免疫接种。“我们今天这样做是为了走在曲线的前面,如果我们需要的话,”莫德纳的首席医疗官塔尔·扎克斯(Tal Zaks)博士在接受采访时说。“我认为这是一份保险单。”dii世界播


“I don’t know if we need it, and I hope we don’t,” he added. dii世界播

“我不知道我们是否需要,我希望我们不需要,”他补充说。dii世界播


Moderna said it also planned to begin testing whether giving patients a third shot of its original vaccine as a booster could help fend off newly emerging forms of the virus. dii世界播

现代说,它还计划开始测试给患者第三针原始疫苗作为增强剂是否有助于抵御新出现的病毒形式。dii世界播


Dr. Ugur Sahin, the chief executive of BioNTech, said in an interview Monday that his company was talking to regulators around the world about what types of clinical trials and safety reviews would be required to authorize a new version of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine that would be better able to head off the variant in South Africa. dii世界播

周一,BioNTech的首席执行官乌古尔·沙欣(Ugur Sahin)博士在接受采访时表示,他的公司正在与世界各地的监管机构商谈,需要进行哪些类型的临床试验和安全性审查,才能授权辉瑞-生物科技(Pfizer-BioNTech)疫苗的新版本,以便更好地在南非阻止这种变异。dii世界播


Studies showing decreased levels of antibodies against a new variant do not mean a vaccine is proportionately less effective, Sahin said. dii世界播

Sahin说,研究表明针对一种新变种的抗体水平下降并不意味着疫苗的效果相对较差。dii世界播


BioNTech could develop a newly adjusted vaccine against the variants in about six weeks, he said. The Food and Drug Administration has not commented on what its policy will be for authorizing vaccines that have been updated to work better against new variants. dii世界播

他说,BioNTech可能会在大约六周内开发出一种针对变种的新调整疫苗。美国食品和药物管理局(Food and Drug Administration,简称FDA)尚未就其授权疫苗的政策发表评论,这些疫苗已经更新,可以更好地对抗新的变种。dii世界播


But some scientists said that the adjusted vaccines should not have to go through the same level of scrutiny, including extensive clinical trials, that the original versions did. The influenza vaccine is updated each year to account for new strains without an extensive approval process. dii世界播

但一些科学家表示,调整后的疫苗不应该像最初的疫苗那样接受同样程度的审查,包括广泛的临床试验。流感疫苗每年都会更新,以适应新的毒株,而不需要广泛的审批程序。dii世界播


“The whole point of this is a rapid response to an emerging situation,” said John Moore, a virus expert at Weill Cornell Medicine in New York. dii世界播

纽约威尔·康奈尔医学院的病毒专家约翰·摩尔(John Moore)说:“这件事的全部意义在于对新出现的情况做出快速反应。”dii世界播


Sahin said a similar booster shot eventually may be necessary to stop COVID-19. The vaccine’s reduced efficacy may also mean that more people will need to get the shots before the population achieves herd immunity. dii世界播

沙欣说,为了阻止新冠肺炎,最终可能有必要打一针类似的助推剂。疫苗效力的降低可能还意味着,在人群实现群体免疫之前,将有更多的人需要注射疫苗。dii世界播


Scientists had predicted that the coronavirus would evolve and might acquire new mutations that would thwart vaccines, but few researchers expected it to happen so soon. Part of the problem is the sheer ubiquity of the virus. dii世界播

科学家们曾预测冠状病毒会进化,可能会获得新的突变,从而阻碍疫苗的接种,但很少有研究人员预计这会这么快发生。问题的一部分是病毒的无处不在。dii世界播


There have been nearly 100 million cases worldwide since the pandemic began, and each new infection gives the coronavirus more chances to mutate. Its uncontrolled spread has fueled the development of new forms that challenge human hosts in various ways. dii世界播

自疫情开始以来,全球已有近1亿例病例,每一次新的感染都会给冠状病毒带来更多的变异机会。它的不受控制的传播推动了以各种方式挑战人类宿主的新形式的发展。dii世界播


“The more people infected, the more likely that we will see new variants,” said Dr. Michel Nussenzweig, an immunologist at Rockefeller University in New York. “If we give the virus a chance to do its worst, it will.” dii世界播

纽约洛克菲勒大学(Rockefeller University)的免疫学家米歇尔·努森茨韦格(Michel Nussenzweig)博士说:“感染的人越多,我们就越有可能看到新的变异。”“如果我们给病毒一个机会去做最坏的事情,它会的。”dii世界播


Several variants have emerged with mutations that worry scientists. A form first detected in Britain is up to 50% more contagious than the virus identified in China a year ago, and researchers have begun to suspect that it may also be slightly more deadly. dii世界播

已经出现了几种变异,其突变令科学家们感到担忧。在英国首次发现的一种病毒的传染性比一年前在中国发现的病毒高出50%,研究人员已经开始怀疑,这种病毒的致命性可能也略高一些。dii世界播


Researchers in South Africa identified another variant after doctors there discovered a jump in COVID-19 cases in October. They alerted the World Health Organization in early December that the variant seemed to have mutations that might make the virus less susceptible to vaccines. dii世界播

南非的医生在10月份发现新冠肺炎病例激增后,研究人员发现了另一种变异。他们在12月初提醒世界卫生组织(World Health Organization),该变体似乎存在突变,可能会使病毒不太容易受到疫苗的影响。dii世界播


A variant found in Brazil has many of the mutations seen in the South African form, but genetic evidence suggests that the two variants evolved independently. Preliminary studies in the laboratory had hinted that those viruses may have some degree of resistance to the immunity that people develop after recovering from the infection or being inoculated with the Moderna or Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines. dii世界播

在巴西发现的一种变异具有许多在南非形式中看到的突变,但遗传证据表明,这两种变异是独立进化的。实验室的初步研究暗示,这些病毒可能对人们从感染中恢复或接种现代或辉瑞生物科技(Pfizer-BioNTech)疫苗后产生的免疫力具有一定程度的抵抗力。dii世界播


The variant identified in Britain has been found in at least 20 states in the United States. The version found in South Africa has not been reported in this country, but on Monday health officials in Minnesota announced that they had documented the first case of infection with the Brazilian variant. dii世界播

在英国发现的这种变异已经在美国至少20个州发现。在南非发现的这种病毒在这个国家还没有报道,但周一,明尼苏达州的卫生官员宣布,他们已经记录了首例感染巴西变种病毒的病例。dii世界播


It is far from certain that these are the only worrying variants out there. Few countries, including the United States, have invested in the kind of genetic surveillance needed to detect emerging variants. Britain leads the world in these efforts, sequencing of about 10% of its virus samples. dii世界播

目前还远不能确定这些是不是唯一令人担忧的变种。包括美国在内,很少有国家投资于检测新出现的变异所需的那种基因监测。英国在这些努力方面走在世界前列,对其约10%的病毒样本进行了测序。dii世界播


The United States has analyzed less than 1% of its samples; officials at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said this month that they expect to swiftly ramp up those efforts. dii世界播

美国只分析了不到1%的样本;疾病控制和预防中心(Centers For Disease Control And Prevention)的官员本月表示,他们预计将迅速加大力度。dii世界播


Researchers at Moderna examined blood samples from eight people who had received two doses of the vaccine, and two monkeys that had been immunized. Neutralizing antibodies — the type that can disable the virus — were just as effective against the variant identified in Britain as they were against the original form of the virus. dii世界播

现代大学的研究人员检查了8名接种了两剂疫苗的人和2只接种过疫苗的猴子的血样。中和抗体-可以使病毒失效的类型-对英国发现的变种病毒的效果与对病毒的原始形式一样有效。dii世界播


But with the variant circulating in South Africa, there was a sixfold reduction in the antibodies’ effectiveness. Even so, the company said, those antibodies “remain above levels that are expected to be protective.” dii世界播

但随着这种变种在南非流行,抗体的有效性降低了六分之一。该公司表示,即便如此,这些抗体“仍高于预期的保护性水平”。dii世界播


The results have not been published or peer-reviewed yet, but were posted online at BioRxiv. Moderna collaborated on the study with the Vaccine Research Center at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health. dii世界播

这一结果尚未发表或经过同行评审,但已在BioRxiv网站上发布。莫德纳与国家卫生研究院下属的国家过敏和传染病研究所的疫苗研究中心合作进行了这项研究。dii世界播


Zaks said that the new version of the Moderna vaccine, aimed at the South African variant, could be used if needed as a booster one year after people received the original vaccine. dii世界播

扎克斯说,针对南非变种的新版现代疫苗,在人们接种原始疫苗一年后,如果需要的话,可以用作增强剂。dii世界播


The need for such a booster may be determined by blood tests to measure antibody levels or by watching the population of vaccinated people to see if they begin falling ill from the new variant. dii世界播

对这种助推器的需求可以通过血液测试来测量抗体水平,或者通过观察接种疫苗的人的数量来确定,看看他们是否开始因新的变种而生病。dii世界播


“We don’t yet have data on the Brazilian variant,” Zaks said. “Our expectation is that if anything it should be close to the South African one. That’s the one with the most overlap.” New forms of the virus will continue to emerge, he said, “and we’ll continue to evaluate them.” dii世界播

扎克斯说:“我们还没有巴西变种的数据。”“我们的预期是,如果说有什么不同的话,那就是它应该接近南非的水平。这是重叠度最高的一个。“。他说,新的病毒形式将继续出现,“我们将继续评估它们。”dii世界播


Noting that Moderna took 42 days to produce the original vaccine, he said the company could make a new one “hopefully a little faster this time, but not much.” dii世界播

他指出,现代花了42天才生产出最初的疫苗,他说,该公司可以“希望这一次能快一点,但不会太快”。dii世界播


One reason the current vaccine remains effective is a “cushion effect,” meaning it provokes such a powerful immune response that it will remain highly protective even with some drop in antibody strength, Dr. Anthony Fauci, the government’s leading expert on infectious diseases, and Biden’s adviser on the coronavirus, said at a news briefing Friday. dii世界播

政府首席传染病专家安东尼·福奇(Anthony Fuci)博士、拜登的冠状病毒顾问安东尼·福奇(Anthony Fuci)博士在周五的新闻发布会上说,目前的疫苗仍然有效的一个原因是“缓冲效应”,这意味着它会激发如此强大的免疫反应,即使抗体强度有所下降,它也会保持高度保护。dii世界播


Experts also cautioned against assuming that a decrease in neutralizing ability meant the vaccines were powerless against the new variants. Neutralizing antibodies are just one component of the body’s immune defense, noted Akiko Iwasaki, an immunologist at Yale University. dii世界播

专家们还告诫说,不要想当然地认为中和能力的下降意味着疫苗对新的变种无能为力。耶鲁大学(Yale University)免疫学家岩崎明子(Akiko Iwaaki)指出,中和抗体只是人体免疫防御的一个组成部分。dii世界播


“In real life, there’s also T cells and memory B cells and non-neutralizing antibodies and all these other effectors that are going to be induced by the vaccine,” Iwasaki said. Neutralizing power is “very important, but it’s not the only thing that’s going to protect someone.” dii世界播

岩崎说:“在现实生活中,疫苗还会诱导T细胞、记忆B细胞和非中和抗体以及所有其他效应器。”中和权力“非常重要,但它不是唯一能保护某人的东西。”dii世界播


So long as the authorized vaccines continue to work against the variants, the challenge will be to inoculate as many people as possible and to prevent the coronavirus from evolving into more impervious forms. “That for me is still the highest priority,” said Sahin, of BioNTech. dii世界播

只要授权的疫苗继续对变种起作用,挑战将是尽可能多的人接种疫苗,并防止冠状病毒演变成更不具渗透性的形式。“对我来说,这仍然是最优先考虑的问题,”BioNTech的沙欣(Sahin)说。dii世界播


Then, he said, perhaps six to nine months later, people could be given a boost that was customized for the variant. dii世界播

然后,他说,也许6到9个月后,人们可以得到为这种变体量身定做的提振。dii世界播


The pace of the vaccine rollout in the United States, at least, may be picking up. Fauci predicted Sunday that 2 million inoculations daily might soon be possible. dii世界播

至少,疫苗在美国推出的步伐可能正在加快。福奇周日预测,可能很快就会有可能每天接种200万次疫苗。dii世界播


But there are many countries where no one has been immunized. With richer countries buying up doses early, some populations may have to wait till 2022 at the earliest to gain access to any vaccines. dii世界播

但在许多国家,没有人接种疫苗。随着富裕国家提前购买疫苗,一些人口可能最早要等到2022年才能获得任何疫苗。dii世界播


In theory, new variants emerging in other parts of the world could render the virus resistant to the vaccines, Nussenzweig said, and they would inevitably spread. It is therefore in everyone’s interest to immunize the world as quickly as possible, he added: “We can’t hermetically seal ourselves from the rest of the world.” dii世界播

Nussenzweig说,从理论上讲,世界其他地区出现的新变种可能会使病毒对疫苗产生抗药性,它们将不可避免地传播。因此,尽快给世界接种疫苗符合每个人的利益,他补充道:“我们不能将自己与世界其他地区封闭起来。”dii世界播


Hoping to contain the new variants, the administration has upheld bans on travel by noncitizens into the United States from Europe and Brazil. Biden will ban travel by noncitizens from South Africa starting dii世界播

为了遏制新的变种,政府维持了对非公民从欧洲和巴西进入美国的禁令。拜登将从7月1日起禁止南非非公民旅行dii世界播


The mRNA technology used in both the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines allows them to be created and reformulated much faster than vaccines made with more traditional methods. dii世界播

辉瑞生物科技(Pfizer-BioNTech)和现代疫苗中使用的信使核糖核酸(MRNA)技术使它们能够比用更传统方法制造的疫苗更快地被创造和重新配制。dii世界播


“This is the beauty of the mRNA vaccines — they’re very versatile,” Iwasaki said. But a new formulation may not even be necessary, she added. A third dose of the current vaccine may be enough to boost levels of antibodies. dii世界播

岩崎说:“这就是mRNA疫苗的美妙之处--它们的用途非常广泛。”但她补充说,新的配方可能甚至没有必要。当前疫苗的第三剂可能足以提高抗体水平。dii世界播


Zaks said that discussions with regulators about what would be required to bring a new version of the vaccine to the public were just starting. dii世界播

扎克斯说,与监管机构就将新版本疫苗带给公众所需的讨论才刚刚开始。dii世界播


“It’s early days,” he said. dii世界播

“现在还为时尚早,”他说。dii世界播


:copyright: 2021 The New York Times Company dii世界播

:copyright:2021纽约时报公司dii世界播

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