一个健康的微生物群可以建立强大的免疫系统,这可能有助于击败新冠肺炎

2021-01-22 22:10

A healthy microbiome builds a strong immune system that could help defeat COVID-19 ias世界播

一个健康的微生物群可以建立强大的免疫系统,这可能有助于击败新冠肺炎ias世界播


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The microbes living in the gut are key to good health. Dr_Microbe/iStock/Getty Images Plus ias世界播

肠道中的微生物是健康的关键。DR_Microbe/iStock/Getty Images Plusias世界播


Takeaways ias世界播

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*Your gut is home to trillions of bacteria that are vital for keeping you healthy. ias世界播

*你的肠道是数万亿细菌的家园,这些细菌对保持你的健康至关重要。ias世界播


*Some of these microbes help to regulate the immune system. ias世界播

*其中一些微生物有助于调节免疫系统。ias世界播


*New research, which has not yet been peer reviewed, shows the presence of certain bacteria in the gut may reveal which people are more vulnerable to a more severe case of COVID-19. ias世界播

*一项尚未经过同行评审的新研究表明,肠道中某些细菌的存在可能会揭示哪些人更容易感染更严重的新冠肺炎病例。ias世界播


You may not know it, but you have an army of microbes living inside of you that are essential for fighting off threats, including the virus that causes COVID-19. ias世界播

你可能不知道,但你体内有一大群微生物,它们对于抵御威胁是必不可少的,包括导致新冠肺炎的病毒。ias世界播


In the past two decades scientists have learned our bodies are home to more bacterial cells than human ones. This community of bacteria that lives in and on us – called the microbiome – resembles a company, with each microbe species performing specialized jobs but all working to keep us healthy. In the gut, the bacteria balance the immune response against pathogens. These bacteria ensure the immune response is effective but not so violent that it causes collateral damage to the host. ias世界播

在过去的二十年里,科学家们已经了解到,我们的身体比人类的身体拥有更多的细菌细胞。这个生活在我们体内和身上的细菌群落--称为微生物群--就像一家公司,每个微生物物种都在从事专门的工作,但都在努力保持我们的健康。在肠道内,细菌平衡免疫反应与病原体。这些细菌确保了免疫反应的有效性,但又不至于猛烈到对宿主造成附带损害的地步。ias世界播


Bacteria in our guts can elicit an effective immune response against viruses that not only infect the gut, such as norovirus and rotavirus, but also those infecting the lungs, such as the flu virus. The beneficial gut microbes do this by ordering specialized immune cells to produce potent antiviral proteins that ultimately eliminate viral infections. And the body of a person lacking these beneficial gut bacteria won’t have as strong an immune response to invading viruses. As a result, infections might go unchecked, taking a toll on health. ias世界播

我们肠道中的细菌可以引发有效的免疫反应,对抗不仅感染肠道的病毒,如诺沃克病毒和轮状病毒,而且还感染肺部的病毒,如流感病毒。有益的肠道微生物通过命令专门的免疫细胞产生有效的抗病毒蛋白来做到这一点,最终消除病毒感染。缺乏这些有益肠道细菌的人的身体对入侵的病毒不会有那么强的免疫反应。因此,感染可能得不到控制,从而对健康造成损害。ias世界播


I am a microbiologist fascinated by the ways bacteria shape human health. An important focus of my research is figuring out how the beneficial bacteria populating our guts combat disease and infection. My most recent work focuses on the link between a particular microbe and the severity of COVID-19 in patients. My ultimate goal is to figure out out how to enhance the gut microbiome with diet to evoke a strong immune response – for not just SARS-CoV-2 but all pathogens. ias世界播

我是一名微生物学家,对细菌塑造人类健康的方式着迷。我研究的一个重要焦点是弄清楚我们肠道中的有益细菌是如何对抗疾病和感染的。我最近的工作集中在一种特定微生物与患者体内新冠肺炎严重程度之间的联系。我的最终目标是找出如何通过饮食增强肠道微生物群,以激发强大的免疫反应-不仅对SARS-CoV-2,而且对所有病原体都是如此。ias世界播


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How do resident bacteria keep you healthy? ias世界播

常驻细菌是如何让你保持健康的?ias世界播


Our immune defense is part of a complex biological response against harmful pathogens, such as viruses or bacteria. However, because our bodies are inhabited by trillions of mostly beneficial bacteria, virus and fungi, activation of our immune response is tightly regulated to distinguish between harmful and helpful microbes. ias世界播

我们的免疫防御是对抗有害病原体(如病毒或细菌)的复杂生物反应的一部分。然而,由于我们的身体中居住着数万亿个大多有益的细菌、病毒和真菌,我们的免疫反应的激活受到严格的调控,以区分有害和有益的微生物。ias世界播


Our bacteria are spectacular companions diligently helping prime our immune system defenses to combat infections. A seminal study found that mice treated with antibiotics that eliminate bacteria in the gut exhibited an impaired immune response. These animals had low counts of virus-fighting white blood cells, weak antibody responses and poor production of a protein that is vital for combating viral infection and modulating the immune response. ias世界播

我们的细菌是壮观的伙伴,勤奋地帮助我们的免疫系统防御以对抗感染。一项开创性的研究发现,用抗生素清除肠道细菌的老鼠表现出免疫反应受损。这些动物的抗病毒白细胞数量少,抗体反应弱,产生的一种对对抗病毒感染和调节免疫反应至关重要的蛋白质产量很低。ias世界播


In another study, mice were fed Lactobacillus bacteria, commonly used as probiotic in fermented food. These microbes reduced the severity of influenza infection. The Lactobacillus-treated mice did not lose weight and had only mild lung damage compared with untreated mice. Similarly, others have found that treatment of mice with Lactobacillus protects against different subtypes of influenza virus and human respiratory syncytial virus – the major cause of viral bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children. ias世界播

在另一项研究中,给老鼠喂食乳酸菌,这种细菌通常被用作发酵食品中的益生菌。这些微生物降低了流感感染的严重程度。乳酸菌治疗的小鼠没有减轻体重,与未治疗的小鼠相比,只有轻微的肺损伤。同样,其他人也发现,用乳酸菌治疗老鼠可以抵御不同亚型的流感病毒和人类呼吸道合胞病毒-这是儿童病毒性毛细支气管炎和肺炎的主要原因。ias世界播


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Fermented foods like kimchi, red beets, apple cider vinegar, coconut milk yogurt, cucumber pickles and sauerkraut can help provide beneficial bacteria. marekuliasz/iStock/Getty Images Plus ias世界播

泡菜、红甜菜、苹果醋、椰奶酸奶、黄瓜泡菜和酸菜等发酵食品有助于提供有益细菌。Marekuliasz/iStock/Getty Images Plusias世界播


Chronic disease and microbes ias世界播

慢性病与微生物。ias世界播


Patients with chronic illnesses including Type 2 diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease exhibit a hyperactive immune system that fails to recognize a harmless stimulus and is linked to an altered gut microbiome. ias世界播

患有包括2型糖尿病、肥胖症和心血管疾病在内的慢性病的患者表现出一种高度活跃的免疫系统,无法识别无害的刺激,并与肠道微生物群的改变有关。ias世界播


In these chronic diseases, the gut microbiome lacks bacteria that activate immune cells that block the response against harmless bacteria in our guts. Such alteration of the gut microbiome is also observed in babies delivered by cesarean section, individuals consuming a poor diet and the elderly. ias世界播

在这些慢性疾病中,肠道微生物群缺乏激活免疫细胞的细菌,而免疫细胞阻止了对肠道中无害细菌的反应。在剖腹产婴儿、饮食不佳的人和老年人身上也可以观察到肠道微生物群的这种变化。ias世界播


In the U.S., 117 million individuals – about half the adult population – suffer from Type 2 diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease or a combination of them. That suggests that half of American adults carry a faulty microbiome army. ias世界播

在美国,1.17亿人-约占成年人口的一半-患有2型糖尿病、肥胖症、心血管疾病或它们的组合。这表明有一半的美国成年人携带有缺陷的微生物菌群。ias世界播


Research in my laboratory focuses on identifying gut bacteria that are critical for creating a balanced immune system, which fights life-threatening bacterial and viral infections, while tolerating the beneficial bacteria in and on us. ias世界播

我实验室的研究重点是识别肠道细菌,这些细菌对于创建一个平衡的免疫系统至关重要,这个系统可以对抗危及生命的细菌和病毒感染,同时容忍我们体内和身上有益的细菌。ias世界播


Given that diet affects the diversity of bacteria in the gut, my lab studies show how diet can be used as a therapy for chronic diseases. Using different foods, people can shift their gut microbiome to one that boosts a healthy immune response. ias世界播

考虑到饮食会影响肠道细菌的多样性,我的实验室研究表明,饮食可以用来治疗慢性病。使用不同的食物,人们可以将肠道微生物群转变为增强健康免疫反应的微生物群。ias世界播


A fraction of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 disease, develop severe complications that require hospitalization in intensive care units. What do many of those patients have in common? Old age and chronic diet-related diseases like obesity, Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. ias世界播

一小部分感染SARS-CoV-2的患者会出现严重的并发症,需要在重症监护病房住院。SARS-CoV-2是导致新冠肺炎疾病的病毒。其中许多患者有什么共同之处?老年和慢性饮食相关疾病,如肥胖症、2型糖尿病和心血管疾病。ias世界播


Black and Latinx people are disproportionately affected by obesity, Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, all of which are linked to poor nutrition. Thus, it is not a coincidence that these groups have suffered more deaths from COVID-19 compared with whites. This is the case not only in the U.S. but also in Britain. ias世界播

黑人和拉丁裔人受到肥胖、2型糖尿病和心血管疾病的影响不成比例,所有这些都与营养不良有关。因此,与白人相比,这些群体死于新冠肺炎的人数更多,这并不是巧合。这不仅在美国如此,在英国也是如此。ias世界播


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Minority communities continue to bear the brunt of the pandemic. Blake Nissen for The Boston Globe via Getty Images ias世界播

少数族裔社区继续首当其冲地受到这场大流行的影响。布莱克·尼森(Blake Nissen)通过盖蒂图片为波士顿环球报工作ias世界播


Discovering microbes that predict COVID-19 severity ias世界播

发现可预测新冠肺炎严重程度的微生物。ias世界播


The COVID-19 pandemic has inspired me to shift my research and explore the role of the gut microbiome in the overly aggressive immune response against SARS-CoV-2 infection. ias世界播

新冠肺炎的流行激发了我改变研究方向,探索肠道微生物群在对抗SARS-CoV-2感染的过度侵略性免疫反应中所起的作用。ias世界播


My colleagues and I have hypothesized that critically ill SARS-CoV-2 patients with conditions like obesity, Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease exhibit an altered gut microbiome that aggravates acute respiratory distress syndrome. ias世界播

我和我的同事们假设,患有肥胖症、2型糖尿病和心血管疾病的重症SARS-CoV-2患者的肠道微生物群发生了变化,从而加剧了急性呼吸窘迫综合征。ias世界播


Acute respiratory distress syndrome, a life-threatening lung injury, in SARS-CoV-2 patients is thought to develop from a fatal overreaction of the immune response called a cytokine storm that causes an uncontrolled flood of immune cells into the lungs. In these patients, their own uncontrolled inflammatory immune response, rather than the virus itself, causes the severe lung injury and multiorgan failures that lead to death. ias世界播

SARS-CoV-2患者的急性呼吸窘迫综合征(一种危及生命的肺损伤)被认为是由于免疫反应的致命过度反应而发展起来的,这种反应被称为细胞因子风暴,导致免疫细胞失控地涌入肺部。在这些患者中,导致严重肺损伤和导致死亡的多器官衰竭的是他们自身不受控制的炎症免疫反应,而不是病毒本身。ias世界播


Several studies described in one recent review have identified an altered gut microbiome in patients with COVID-19. However, identification of specific bacteria within the microbiome that could predict COVID-19 severity is lacking. ias世界播

在最近的一篇综述中描述的几项研究发现,新冠肺炎患者的肠道微生物群发生了变化。然而,缺乏对微生物群中可以预测新冠肺炎严重程度的特定细菌的识别。ias世界播


To address this question, my colleagues and I recruited COVID-19 hospitalized patients with severe and moderate symptoms. We collected stool and saliva samples to determine whether bacteria within the gut and oral microbiome could predict COVID-19 severity. The identification of microbiome markers that can predict the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 disease is key to help prioritize patients needing urgent treatment. ias世界播

为了解决这个问题,我和我的同事招募了一些严重和中度症状的新冠肺炎住院患者。我们收集了粪便和唾液样本,以确定肠道和口腔微生物群中的细菌是否可以预测新冠肺炎的严重程度。识别可以预测新冠肺炎病临床结果的微生物组标志物是帮助优先处理需要紧急治疗的患者的关键。ias世界播


We demonstrated, in a paper which has not yet been peer reviewed, that the composition of the gut microbiome is the strongest predictor of COVID-19 severity compared to patient’s clinical characteristics commonly used to do so. Specifically, we identified that the presence of a bacterium in the stool – called Enterococcus faecalis– was a robust predictor of COVID-19 severity. Not surprisingly, Enterococcus faecalis has been associated with chronic inflammation. ias世界播

我们在一篇尚未经过同行审查的论文中证明,与患者通常使用的临床特征相比,肠道微生物群的组成是预测新冠肺炎严重程度的最有力因素。具体地说,我们发现,粪便中一种名为粪肠球菌的细菌的存在是新冠肺炎严重程度的有力预测因素。毫不奇怪,粪肠球菌与慢性炎症有关。ias世界播


Enterococcus faecalis collected from feces can be grown outside of the body in clinical laboratories. Thus, an E. faecalis test might be a cost-effective, rapid and relatively easy way to identify patients who are likely to require more supportive care and therapeutic interventions to improve their chances of survival. ias世界播

从粪便中收集的粪肠球菌可以在临床实验室的体外培养。因此,粪肠球菌检测可能是一种经济、快速和相对容易的方法,可以识别可能需要更多支持性护理和治疗性干预的患者,以提高他们的生存机会。ias世界播


But it is not yet clear from our research what is the contribution of the altered microbiome in the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. A recent study has shown that SARS-CoV-2 infection triggers an imbalance in immune cells called T regulatory cells that are critical to immune balance. ias世界播

但我们的研究还不清楚这种改变的微生物群在SARS-CoV-2感染的免疫反应中的作用是什么。最近的一项研究表明,SARS-CoV-2感染会触发免疫细胞的失衡,这种细胞被称为T调节细胞,而T调节细胞是免疫平衡的关键。ias世界播


Bacteria from the gut microbiome are responsible for the proper activation of those T-regulatory cells. Thus, researchers like me need to take repeated patient stool, saliva and blood samples over a longer time frame to learn how the altered microbiome observed in COVID-19 patients can modulate COVID-19 disease severity, perhaps by altering the development of the T-regulatory cells. ias世界播

肠道微生物群中的细菌负责这些T调节细胞的适当激活。因此,像我这样的研究人员需要在更长的时间内重复采集患者的粪便、唾液和血液样本,以了解在新冠肺炎患者中观察到的改变的微生物群如何通过改变T调节细胞的发育来调节新冠肺炎疾病的严重程度。ias世界播


As a Latina scientist investigating interactions between diet, microbiome and immunity, I must stress the importance of better policies to improve access to healthy foods, which lead to a healthier microbiome. It is also important to design culturally sensitive dietary interventions for Black and Latinx communities. While a good-quality diet might not prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection, it can treat the underlying conditions related to its severity. ias世界播

作为一名研究饮食、微生物群和免疫之间相互作用的拉丁裔科学家,我必须强调更好的政策的重要性,以改善获得健康食品的机会,从而导致更健康的微生物群。为黑人和拉丁裔社区设计具有文化敏感性的饮食干预措施也很重要。虽然高质量的饮食可能不能预防SARS-CoV-2感染,但它可以治疗与其严重程度相关的潜在疾病。ias世界播

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