桑杰·古普塔博士:今年感恩节我不会去探望家人。你也不应该这么做

2020-11-22 07:32

Dr. Sanjay Gupta: I won't be visiting with family this Thanksgiving. You shouldn't either. zJK世界播

桑杰·古普塔博士:今年感恩节我不会去探望家人。你也不应该这么做zJK世界播


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Dr. Birx: Keep Thanksgiving to your immediate household zJK世界播

伯克斯医生:把感恩节留给你的直系亲属zJK世界播


The country saw it after Memorial Day, the Fourth of July and Labor Day: spikes in Covid-19 cases in parts of the country a few weeks after Americans gathered with family and friends to celebrate. We were warned each time. zJK世界播

在阵亡将士纪念日、7月4日和劳动节之后,这个国家看到了这一事件:在美国人与家人和朋友聚集在一起庆祝几周后,美国部分地区的新冠肺炎案件激增。我们每次都被警告过。zJK世界播


Some of us told ourselves that we were fatigued from the spring lockdown (true), the weather was finally warming up (true), we had done so well keeping infection rates from soaring during the summer (not really true -- we never even got them low enough to emerge from the so-called first wave). But, not surprisingly, the infection rates kept climbing. zJK世界播

我们中的一些人告诉自己,我们从春季的封锁中疲惫不堪(没错),天气终于回暖了(没错),我们在防止夏季感染率飙升方面做得如此之好(事实并非如此--我们甚至都没有把感染率降到足够低的程度,以至于无法从所谓的第一波疫情中脱颖而出)。但是,不足为奇的是,感染率在不断攀升。zJK世界播


The country is facing some of these same choices again as we quickly head into the trifecta of holidays: Thanksgiving, the December holidays (Hanukkah, Christmas and Kwanzaa), and New Year's Eve. zJK世界播

随着我们迅速进入三个节日:感恩节、十二月假期(光明节、圣诞节和宽扎节)和新年前夕,这个国家再次面临着同样的选择。zJK世界播


The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention updated its recommendations Thursday, to advise against Thanksgiving travel and gathering with people outside our own households. The big question: Have we learned the tough lessons? zJK世界播

美国疾病控制和预防中心周四更新了其建议,建议不要在感恩节旅行和与家人以外的人聚会。最大的问题是:我们吸取了艰难的教训吗?zJK世界播


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CDC recommends against travel for Thanksgiving zJK世界播

美国疾病控制与预防中心建议不要在感恩节出行zJK世界播


Cindy McMahon, from Manasquan, New Jersey, was hoping her brother's family would be able to join her family of four, plus their 87-year-old mother, for Thanksgiving this year. zJK世界播

来自新泽西州马纳斯坎的辛迪·麦克马洪(Cindy McMahon)希望她哥哥的家人能和她一家四口以及87岁的母亲一起过今年的感恩节。zJK世界播


"Well, my brother and sister-in-law have been spending Thanksgiving elsewhere for a number of years, and they decided that this year they would like to change their routine and join us," she told me. zJK世界播

她告诉我:“我哥哥和嫂子已经在别处过感恩节好几年了,他们决定今年要改变习惯,和我们一起过感恩节。”zJK世界播


So McMahon and her sister-in-law hatched their plan back in August, when cases in New Jersey were under control. "They would join us and there would be nine of us for Thanksgiving," she said. zJK世界播

因此,麦克马洪和她的嫂子早在8月份就酝酿了他们的计划,当时新泽西州的病例得到了控制。她说:“他们会和我们一起过感恩节,我们有九个人。”zJK世界播


They had no idea how much things would change again over the next three months. zJK世界播

他们不知道在接下来的三个月里,情况会有多大的变化。zJK世界播


Laying the groundwork for winter zJK世界播

为冬天做好准备。zJK世界播


What McMahon, her family and the rest of us choose to do in the coming weeks will likely lay the groundwork for the pandemic's path during the long, cold days that follow this winter. zJK世界播

麦克马洪、她的家人和我们其他人在接下来的几周里选择做的事情可能会为流感在今冬之后漫长而寒冷的日子里传播奠定基础。zJK世界播


The sad truth is, we are in an even worse position than we were this summer: Prior to the earlier holidays, the trajectory of the pandemic was declining in at least some states. Currently, infection rates are rising in 44 states. zJK世界播

可悲的事实是,我们正处于比今年夏天更糟糕的境地:在早些时候的假期之前,至少在一些州,疫情的传播轨迹正在下降。目前,44个州的感染率正在上升。zJK世界播


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US seeing unprecedented coronavirus spread, White House says zJK世界播

白宫称,美国出现史无前例的冠状病毒传播zJK世界播


For more than two weeks straight, the country has added more than 100,000 new coronavirus diagnoses every day. On Friday, the country tallied its highest number of Covid-19 cases: 195,542. By comparison, on Memorial Day, there were fewer than 20,000 daily new cases. zJK世界播

在连续两周多的时间里,中国每天新增10万多例冠状病毒诊断病例。周五,中国记录了新冠肺炎病例的最高数字:195,542例。相比之下,阵亡将士纪念日,每天新增病例不到2万例。zJK世界播


All told, the country is rapidly closing in on 12 million coronavirus cases and there have been more than 250,000 deaths. On Friday alone, more than 1,850 deaths were reported. Also on Friday, a record high number of hospitalizations due to Covid-19 -- 82,178 people -- according to the Covid Tracking Project. Hospitals in some states are overwhelmed; staff shortages due to illness are compounding the problem. zJK世界播

总体而言,该国正在迅速接近1200万例冠状病毒病例,死亡人数已超过25万人。仅在周五,就有超过1850人死亡的报道。同样在周五,根据Covid Tracking Project的数据,因新冠肺炎住院的人数创下历史新高--82,178人。一些州的医院不堪重负;由于疾病导致的员工短缺加剧了这个问题。zJK世界播


The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation at the University of Washington predicts that by the start of January, more than 2,000 people in the US will die every day from Covid-19 and that if behavior doesn't change, total US deaths could reach more than 471,000 by March 1. And it warns that hospital systems, particularly ICUs, are expected to be "under extreme stress in December and January in 18 states." zJK世界播

华盛顿大学健康指标与评估研究所预测,到明年1月初,美国每天将有超过2,000人死于新冠肺炎。如果行为不改变,到3月1日,美国的总死亡人数可能会超过47.1万人。该机构警告称,医院系统,特别是ICU,预计“在12月和明年1月将在18个州处于极端压力之下”。zJK世界播


State after state is imposing new restrictions. And public health experts are sounding the alarm louder than before. zJK世界播

一个又一个州正在施加新的限制。公共卫生专家发出了比以往更大的警钟。zJK世界播


One of the biggest areas of concern: small, indoor household gatherings, like the ones most families typically plan this time of year. Let's face it. It is getting colder outside, which means most of the country will be spending time indoors. zJK世界播

最令人担忧的领域之一:小型的室内家庭聚会,就像大多数家庭通常在一年中的这个时候计划的那样。让我们面对现实。外面越来越冷,这意味着这个国家的大部分地区都将呆在室内。zJK世界播


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Pfizer and BioNTech apply for FDA emergency use authorization for coronavirus vaccine zJK世界播

辉瑞和BioNTech向FDA申请冠状病毒疫苗紧急使用授权zJK世界播


Also, when you are eating, you can't wear a mask. And, holiday dinners aren't quiet affairs, which means there is likely to be loud talking and maybe even singing, which is festive, but also a prescription for aerosolized virus. zJK世界播

另外,当你吃饭的时候,你不能戴口罩。而且,节日晚餐不是安静的事情,这意味着很可能会有大声的交谈,甚至可能会唱歌,这是喜庆的,但也是雾化病毒的处方。zJK世界播


And can you imagine not hugging or snuggling in close? Add a glass of wine into the equation, and physical distancing might go out the window. zJK世界播

你能想象没有紧紧拥抱或依偎的情景吗?在等式中再加一杯酒,身体距离可能就会被抛诸脑后。zJK世界播


It is why CDC Director Dr. Robert Redfield specifically singled out the holidays when he spoke to the nation's governors a few weeks ago. "What we're seeing as the increasing threat right now is actually acquisition of infection through small household gatherings. And particularly with Thanksgiving coming up, we think it's really important to stress the vigilance of these continued mitigation steps in the household setting," he told them. zJK世界播

这就是美国疾病控制与预防中心主任罗伯特·雷德菲尔德博士几周前在向全国州长发表讲话时特别提到节日的原因。他告诉他们:“我们现在看到的日益严重的威胁实际上是通过小型家庭聚会感染的。特别是随着感恩节的临近,我们认为强调在家庭环境中对这些持续的缓解措施保持警惕是非常重要的。”zJK世界播


And, that brings us back to Cindy McMahon. zJK世界播

这让我们回到了辛迪·麦克马洪。zJK世界播


For her part, McMahon started building a spreadsheet. "I started to think about it ... and that's what led me to create that spreadsheet. ... I really thought that I could figure out a way to make it work," she said. zJK世界播

就麦克马洪而言,她开始创建一个电子表格。她说:“我开始思考这个问题……这就是我创建这个电子表格的原因。……我真的以为我能想出一个办法让它发挥作用。”zJK世界播


She took what she knew of each family member -- their age and comorbidities, who they come into contact with, do they leave home for school or work, do they wear masks consistently, do the people they come into contact with wear masks consistently, what leisure activities do they participate in -- and into the spreadsheet it all went. zJK世界播

她收集了她对每个家庭成员的了解--他们的年龄和合并症,他们接触过的人,他们是否离家上学或工作,他们是否经常戴口罩,他们接触的人是否一直戴口罩,他们参加什么休闲活动--所有这些都记录在电子表格中。zJK世界播


"I decided that I would fill in for each individual and see where that led and whether there was some way we could, in fact, be together, sitting across from each other at the dining room table ... enjoying our meal without our masks on. And that was my thought process. How can I make that happen again? How can we have a relatively normal Thanksgiving in anything but normal times?" she wondered. zJK世界播

“我决定代替每个人,看看这会导致什么结果,以及我们是否可以,事实上,在餐桌上面对面坐在一起……不戴口罩享受我们的晚餐。这就是我的思考过程。我怎样才能让这种情况再次发生?我们怎么才能在不正常的时候过一个相对正常的感恩节呢?”她想知道。zJK世界播


The safest solution zJK世界播

最安全的解决方案。zJK世界播


It is true that some communities are safer than others, with lower levels of community spread, but overall, the country is widely infected at this point, and travel during holidays can turn any place into a hotspot. zJK世界播

诚然,一些社区比其他社区更安全,社区传播水平较低,但总体而言,这个国家在这一点上受到了广泛的感染,假日期间的旅行可能会把任何地方都变成热点。zJK世界播


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Lines to get tested for coronavirus are growing long ahead of Thanksgiving and amid rising cases zJK世界播

在感恩节之前,在病例不断上升的情况下,接受冠状病毒检测的队伍越来越长zJK世界播


That's why most public health officials, and the CDC will tell you the safest choice is to stay home and not gather in person with people outside your immediate household. Instead, do virtual gatherings with family members and friends. zJK世界播

这就是为什么大多数公共卫生官员和疾病预防控制中心会告诉你,最安全的选择是呆在家里,不要和直系亲属以外的人见面。取而代之的是,与家人和朋友进行虚拟聚会。zJK世界播


You'll be in good company. The director of the National Institutes of Health, Dr. Francis Collins, said that for the first time in 27 years, his family will not be gathering for Thanksgiving. zJK世界播

你会有很好的伙伴。美国国立卫生研究院(National Institutes Of Health)院长弗朗西斯·柯林斯(Francis Collins)博士说,27年来,他的家人第一次不会聚在一起过感恩节。zJK世界播


"It is just not safe to take that kind of chance with people coming from different parts of the country of uncertain status. The problem with this disease is, it is so easy for people to be infected and not know it, and then spread it to the ones next to them without realizing it," he said during an NPR interview in October. zJK世界播

他在10月份接受美国国家公共广播电台(NPR)采访时表示:“与来自不同地区、身份不确定的人冒这种风险是不安全的。这种疾病的问题是,人们很容易被感染而不知道,然后在没有意识到的情况下传播给他们身边的人。”zJK世界播


Dr. Scott Gottlieb, a former commissioner of the US Food and Drug Administration, said during a CNBC interview he and his family will forgo Thanksgiving this year, and hopes everyone will do the same. zJK世界播

美国食品和药物管理局(FDA)前局长斯科特·戈特利布(Scott Gottlieb)博士在接受CNBC采访时表示,他和家人今年将放弃感恩节,并希望每个人都能这么做。zJK世界播


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Should you visit your family for the holidays? Here's Dr. Leana Wen's answer zJK世界播

你应该去看望你的家人过节吗?下面是Leana wen博士的答案zJK世界播


"We need to be getting through the next couple of months. This is the hardest point in this pandemic right now -- the next two months. We can't give up our guard right now," Gottlieb said, adding that we must think of the older individuals who are most at risk. zJK世界播

Gottlieb说:“我们需要度过接下来的几个月。这是这次疫情最艰难的时刻--未来两个月。我们现在不能放松警惕。”他补充说,我们必须考虑到面临最大风险的老年人。zJK世界播


And, the same goes for me. Like Gottlieb, I have three daughters, and with my elderly parents living in a different state, this is usually the time of year when we get to see each other. zJK世界播

我也一样。和Gottlieb一样,我有三个女儿,而且我年迈的父母住在不同的州,通常每年的这个时候我们都能见到对方。zJK世界播


But this holiday season, our interactions will be on screens -- with promises and hopes that next year will be different. zJK世界播

但在这个假日季节,我们的互动将出现在屏幕上--我们承诺并希望明年会有所不同。zJK世界播


Modifying traditions to limit risk zJK世界播

修改传统以限制风险。zJK世界播


If you are going to attend or host a holiday gathering, the CDC recommends taking several precautions. Even though the weather is getting chilly in most parts of the country, an outdoor gathering is safer than an indoor one; worst of all is an indoor gathering without proper circulation. zJK世界播

如果你要参加或主持一个节日聚会,疾控中心建议采取几项预防措施。尽管美国大部分地区的天气越来越冷,但户外聚会比室内聚会更安全;最糟糕的是,室内聚会没有适当的循环。zJK世界播


If you are still considering having guests coming in from out of town, make sure to take into account the level of community spread at their location of origin. If they are coming from a place where the numbers are increasing and the test positivity rate is above 5-10%, it means an even greater risk. zJK世界播

如果你仍在考虑让客人从外地来,一定要考虑到他们所在地区的社区分布水平。如果他们来自一个数字在增加的地方,而且检测阳性率在5-10%以上,这意味着更大的风险。zJK世界播


Another step you should consider is protective self-quarantine before you gather. That means 14 days of no exposures and then a test at the end to make sure everyone is negative before coming together. But many places are seeing a surge in demand for tests, which could mean long waits and slower results. And even a negative test is no guarantee. zJK世界播

你应该考虑的另一个步骤是在你收集之前进行自我防护性检疫。这意味着14天没有接触病毒,然后在最后进行一次测试,以确保所有人在聚集之前都是阴性的。但许多地方对检测的需求激增,这可能意味着漫长的等待和较慢的结果。即使是阴性检测也不能保证。zJK世界播


The same goes for college students returning home for the holidays. For infection-mitigation purposes, the CDC says they do not count as members of your household. zJK世界播

同样的道理也适用于返乡度假的大学生。美国疾病控制与预防中心表示,出于缓解感染的目的,他们不会被算作你的家庭成员。zJK世界播


"People who have not been living in your household for the 14 days before you are celebrating should not be considered members of your household and so you should take those extra precautions, even wearing masks within your own home," Erin Sauber-Schatz, the CDC's lead for Community Intervention and Critical Population Task Force said during a telephone briefing Thursday. zJK世界播

美国疾病控制与预防中心社区干预和关键人口工作组负责人艾琳·索伯·沙茨(Erin Sauber-Schatz)在周四的一次电话吹风会上表示:“在你庆祝之前的14天内,没有住在你家里的人不应该被视为你的家庭成员,所以你应该采取这些额外的预防措施,即使是在你自己的家里也要戴口罩。”zJK世界播


Finally, the agency notes, the larger and the longer the gathering, the greater the risk, so try to keep gatherings as small and as short as possible. Limit the number of people handling the food. And even though it's a festive occasion, it's still important to maintain physical distance between guests from different households, to wear masks and to wash hands often. zJK世界播

最后,该机构指出,聚会的规模越大、时间越长,风险就越大,所以尽量保持聚会的规模越小、时间越短。限制处理食物的人数。尽管这是一个喜庆的场合,但在不同家庭的客人之间保持身体距离、戴口罩和经常洗手仍然很重要。zJK世界播


Even if you think you and your guests are similarly strict and safety-minded, you need to talk about what that really means. zJK世界播

即使你认为你和你的客人也同样严格和注重安全,你也需要谈谈这到底意味着什么。zJK世界播


"I am finding over and over what one family believes is being very risk averse is not the same as another family describes being risk averse. So even though they sort of think, 'Oh, we're doing the same thing,' they're not," said Erin Bromage, an associate professor of biology at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth and a CNN analyst. zJK世界播

马萨诸塞大学达特茅斯分校生物学副教授、CNN分析师艾琳·布罗马奇(Erin Bromage)说,“我一遍又一遍地发现,一个家庭认为非常厌恶风险的东西,与另一个家庭描述的厌恶风险不同。所以,尽管他们有点认为,‘哦,我们在做同样的事情’,但他们并不是这样的,”马萨诸塞大学达特茅斯分校生物学副教授、CNN分析师艾琳·布罗马奇(Erin Bromage)说。zJK世界播


These honest conversations are best done in advance of the holidays, so you can take the answers into consideration when planning. zJK世界播

这些坦诚的谈话最好在假期之前进行,这样你就可以在计划时把答案考虑进去。zJK世界播


For Cindy McMahon, the spreadsheet highlighted a host of problems. "At first I thought, 'Oh, I'm such a genius ... I think maybe I can make this work.' And then as you start filling in those columns, you're like --the feeling of dread --- no: there is no way that that I can make this happen," she said. zJK世界播

对于辛迪·麦克马洪(Cindy McMahon)来说,电子表格突显了一系列问题。她说:“一开始我想,‘哦,我真是个天才……我想也许我能做到这一点。’然后当你开始填写那些专栏时,你就像--恐惧的感觉-不:我不可能做到这一点,”她说。zJK世界播


She thought about having everyone get tested and then hunkering down before the visit, but realized it was unrealistic. "How could I expect that every family member would be able to stay in? My husband had to go to work and, you know, he's teaching in his school," she said. zJK世界播

她想过让每个人都去做检查,然后在参观之前蹲下来,但她意识到这是不现实的。“我怎么能指望每个家庭成员都能留在家里呢?我丈夫要去上班,你知道,他在学校教书,”她说。zJK世界播


"I tried to come up with solutions and it just all came back to 'Let's just be safe,'" she said, adding that her own mother "knew immediately it was never going to work." zJK世界播

她说:“我试着想出解决办法,但一切都回到了‘让我们安全一点’。”她补充说,她自己的母亲“立刻就知道这是行不通的。”zJK世界播


McMahon said she struggled with the decision not to gather for Thanksgiving, but pragmatism beat out denial. zJK世界播

麦克马洪说,她为不聚集在一起过感恩节的决定而苦苦挣扎,但实用主义战胜了否认。zJK世界播


"I'm very sad. I love the holiday season. I can't even think ahead to Christmastime because I know I'll be crying my eyes out that we can't have our traditional [celebration] -- But you know what? That's OK. Right? Twists and turns in life anyhow, regardless of the virus. So, you just roll with it and keep cooking," she said. zJK世界播

她说:“我很难过。我喜欢这个节日。我甚至不能提前想到圣诞节,因为我知道我会哭得泪流满面,因为我们不能再过传统的(庆祝)了--但你知道吗?这没关系。对吧?不管是什么病毒,生活中都会有曲折。所以,你只要顺其自然,继续做饭就行了。”zJK世界播


And while she won't be making lemon pie out of the lemons we've all been dealt, she's still making pie. zJK世界播

虽然她不会用我们都吃过的柠檬做柠檬派,但她还在做派。zJK世界播


"When we came to the conclusion that we could not gather together, that didn't mean that I'm not putting a turkey in the oven and that I'm not going to make all the traditional foods and ... three pies and all the goodies," she said. She plans to package up some servings and drop off the shopping bags at her mother's doorstep. zJK世界播

“当我们得出我们不能聚在一起的结论时,这并不意味着我不会把火鸡放进烤箱,也不意味着我不会做所有的传统食物……三个馅饼和所有的美食,”她说。她计划打包一些食物,把购物袋放在她母亲的家门口。zJK世界播


Hopefully there will be a lot of stories like McMahon's this holiday season. They are not stories of canceling our holidays, but of recognizing that it will have to be different this year. They are stories full of love, not because we got together this season, but because we sacrificed to keep each other safer. They are stories of physically distancing, but not socially isolating, because we need social connection more than ever. zJK世界播

希望这个假日季会有很多像麦克马洪那样的故事。这些不是取消我们假期的故事,而是认识到今年必须有所不同的故事。这些故事充满了爱,不是因为我们在这一季相聚,而是因为我们为了彼此的安全而牺牲。它们是身体上疏远的故事,但不是社会孤立的故事,因为我们比以往任何时候都更需要社会联系。zJK世界播


Hopefully, they're stories of people reminding one another that we are truly in this together, and then rising to the moment by being kind to everyone around you. zJK世界播

希望这些故事是这样的:人们相互提醒,我们真的在一起,然后通过善待你周围的每一个人来站到这一时刻。zJK世界播

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