新冠肺炎幸存者或有持久免疫力,辉瑞疫苗试验有效率95%

2020-11-19 14:08

COVID-19 survivors may have long lasting immunity; Pfizer vaccine is 95% effective in trial hGs世界播

新冠肺炎幸存者或有持久免疫力,辉瑞疫苗试验有效率95%hGs世界播


(Reuters) - The following is a roundup of some of the latest scientific studies on the novel coronavirus and efforts to find treatments and vaccines for COVID-19, the illness caused by the virus. hGs世界播

(路透社)-以下是关于新型冠状病毒的一些最新科学研究综述,以及为新冠肺炎(由该病毒引起的疾病)寻找治疗和疫苗的努力。hGs世界播


Immune protection against severe reinfection appears lasting hGs世界播

对严重再感染的免疫保护似乎是持久的。hGs世界播


Regardless of their detectable antibody levels, most COVID-19 survivors are likely to have lasting protection against severe COVID-19 if they become reinfected, thanks to other components of the body's immune response that remember the new coronavirus in different ways, researchers say. In a study of 185 patients, including 41 who had been infected more than six months earlier, scientists at La Jolla Institute for Immunology in California found that multiple branches of the immune system - not just antibodies - recognized the novel coronavirus for at least eight months. For example, so-called memory B cells that could recognize the virus and produce antibodies to fight it were more abundant six months after infection than at one month, they reported in a paper posted on Monday on bioRxiv ahead of peer review. The new findings "suggest that the immune system can remember the virus for years, and most people may be protected from severe COVID-19 for a substantial time," said study leaders Shane Crotty and Alessandro Sette. hGs世界播

研究人员表示,无论可检测到的抗体水平如何,大多数新冠肺炎幸存者如果再次感染,很可能对严重的新冠肺炎有持久的保护作用,这要归功于人体免疫反应的其他组成部分,它们以不同的方式记忆这种新冠状病毒。加利福尼亚州拉霍亚免疫学研究所(La Jolla Institute For Immunology)的科学家对185名患者进行了研究,其中包括41名六个多月前感染的患者。他们发现,免疫系统的多个分支--而不仅仅是抗体--识别这种新型冠状病毒的时间至少长达八个月。例如,在同行评审之前,他们在周一发表在biRxiv上的一篇论文中报道,感染六个月后,能够识别病毒并产生抗体对抗病毒的所谓记忆B细胞比一个月时更丰富。研究带头人Shane Crotty和Alessandro Sette说,新的发现“表明免疫系统可以多年记住这种病毒,大多数人可能会在很长一段时间内免受严重的新冠肺炎的侵袭。”hGs世界播


Final data from Pfizer vaccine trial shows 95% efficacy hGs世界播

辉瑞疫苗试验的最终数据显示95%的有效性。hGs世界播


Final results from Pfizer Inc's pivotal COVID-19 vaccine trial show it had a 95% success rate - even higher than an earlier analysis - and two months of follow-up data without serious side effects, the company said on Wednesday. In the study involving about 43,000 volunteers, 162 of the 170 who contracted COVID-19 had received a placebo, not the vaccine. Of the 10 participants who had severe COVID-19, only one had received the vaccine. The final analysis of the trial's data comes a week after interim results showed the vaccine was more than 90% effective. Moderna Inc on Monday released preliminary data for its vaccine, showing 94.5% effectiveness. Pfizer said the efficacy its two-dose vaccine, developed with German partner BioNTech SE , was consistent across different age and ethnic groups. Efficacy in adults over age 65 was over 94%. Pfizer said it expects to make up to 50 million vaccine doses this year - enough to inoculate 25 million people - and up to 1.3 billion doses in 2021. hGs世界播

辉瑞公司(Pfizer Inc.)周三表示,关键的新冠肺炎疫苗试验的最终结果显示,该疫苗的成功率为95%-甚至高于早先的分析-以及两个月的随访数据,没有严重的副作用。在这项涉及大约43,000名志愿者的研究中,170名感染新冠肺炎的人中有162人接受了安慰剂,而不是疫苗。在10名新冠肺炎病情严重的参与者中,只有一人接种了疫苗。对试验数据的最终分析是在中期结果显示疫苗有效率超过90%的一周后发布的。现代公司周一发布了疫苗的初步数据,显示94.5%的有效性。辉瑞公司表示,其与德国合作伙伴BioNTech SE共同开发的两剂疫苗在不同年龄和种族之间的效果是一致的。65岁以上成年人的有效率超过94%。辉瑞公司表示,预计今年将生产多达5000万剂疫苗-足以为2500万人接种疫苗-并在2021年生产多达13亿剂疫苗。hGs世界播


Respiratory muscle damage linked to severe COVID-19 hGs世界播

呼吸肌损伤与严重的新冠肺炎有关。hGs世界播


Critically ill COVID-19 patients develop virus-induced damage of respiratory muscles, scientists at Amsterdam UMC in The Netherlands reported on Monday in JAMA Internal Medicine. They performed autopsy studies of the diaphragm, the main respiratory muscle, in 26 COVID-19 patients who died in the intensive care unit (ICU) and 8 ICU patients who died without COVID-19. In everyone, the diaphragm muscle cell membranes contained a protein called ACE2, which the new coronavirus uses as an entryway into cells. The researchers found genetic evidence of the virus in diaphragm muscle cells in some of those who died from COVID-19, and microscopy analyses showed much more connective tissue scarring (fibrosis) in COVID-19 patients' diaphragms, indicating damage, study coauthor Coen Ottenheijm told Reuters. He said the diaphragm damage may help explain why it is often difficult for COVID-19 patients to breathe on their own again after they have been on mechanical ventilators in the ICU. It may also explain the persistent shortness of breath in patients recovering from COVID-19. hGs世界播

荷兰阿姆斯特丹大学医学院的科学家周一在《美国医学会内科杂志》上报道,新冠肺炎的危重患者会出现病毒引起的呼吸肌损伤。他们对26名死于重症监护病房(ICU)的新冠肺炎患者和8名没有新冠肺炎的ICU患者的主要呼吸肌--横隔肌进行了尸检研究。在每个人体内,横隔肌细胞膜都含有一种名为ACE2的蛋白质,这种新型冠状病毒利用这种蛋白质作为进入细胞的通道。研究合著者Coen Ottenheijm告诉路透社,研究人员在一些死于新冠肺炎的人的横隔肌细胞中发现了病毒的遗传证据,显微镜分析显示新冠肺炎患者的横隔膜结缔组织瘢痕(纤维化)更多,这表明存在损伤。他说,横隔膜的损伤可能有助于解释为什么新冠肺炎患者在重症监护病房使用机械呼吸机后,往往很难再次自主呼吸。这也可能解释了新冠肺炎康复患者持续呼吸短促的原因。hGs世界播


Cardiac arrest survival is down during the pandemic hGs世界播

在大流行期间,心脏骤停的存活率下降了。hGs世界播


U.S. data from early this year suggest the pandemic has led to decreased survival rates after "out-of-hospital" cardiac arrest. Based on nationwide data, the proportion of patients whose hearts could be restarted was 21% lower in March-April 2020 than in the same period in 2019, researchers reported on Saturday at the annual American Heart Association meeting, held virtually this year, and in JAMA Cardiology. The proportion of patients who survived to be discharged from hospitals was also lower in 2020, at 6.6%, versus 9.8% in 2019. Survival rates after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest had nearly doubled in the last 20 years, and "we want to make sure we don't lose those gains," said coauthor Dr. Paul Chan of St. Luke's Mid-America Heart Institute in Missouri. Dr. Clifton Callaway of the University of Pittsburgh, who viewed the presentation but was not involved in the study, said other viewers noted it is more difficult for paramedics to work wearing full personal protective gear as it takes time to put on and can impede emergency care. Furthermore, some patients may have delayed calling for help over concerns of becoming infected with the coronavirus. And some may have also had COVID-19, making their medical condition more severe. hGs世界播

美国今年初的数据显示,埃博拉疫情导致“院外”心脏骤停后存活率下降。周六,研究人员在美国心脏协会(American Heart Association)年度会议(今年几乎举行)和《美国医学会心脏病杂志》(JAMA心脏病学)上报告称,基于全国数据,2020年3月至4月可以重新启动心脏的患者比例比2019年同期下降了21%。2020年,存活出院的患者比例也较低,为6.6%,而2019年为9.8%。密苏里州圣卢克中美心脏研究所(St.Luke‘s Mid-America Heart Institute)的合著者保罗·陈(Paul Chan)博士说,在过去20年里,院外心脏骤停后的存活率几乎翻了一番,“我们希望确保我们不会失去这些成果。”匹兹堡大学(University Of Pittsburgh)的克利夫顿·卡拉韦(Clifton Callaway)博士观看了演示文稿,但没有参与这项研究。他说,其他观众指出,医护人员穿上全套个人防护装备更难工作,因为穿上全套个人防护装备需要时间,而且可能会阻碍急救。此外,部分病人可能因担心感染冠状病毒而延迟求救。还有一些人可能还得了新冠肺炎,这让他们的病情更加严重。hGs世界播


Open https://tmsnrt.rs/3a5EyDh in an external browser for a Reuters graphic on vaccines and treatments in development. hGs世界播

在外部浏览器中打开https://tmsnrt.rs/3a5EyDh,查看路透社正在开发的疫苗和治疗方法的图表。hGs世界播

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