现代的冠状病毒疫苗需要每个月注射两针,这使得让每个人都完全接种疫苗变得更加困难

2020-11-17 12:07

Moderna's coronavirus vaccine requires 2 shots given a month apart, which makes it tougher to get everyone fully inoculated j1g世界播

现代的冠状病毒疫苗需要每个月注射两针,这使得让每个人都完全接种疫苗变得更加困难j1g世界播


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A nurse prepares a coronavirus vaccine developed by Moderna and the National Institutes of Health, July 2020. Hans Pennink/AP j1g世界播

2020年7月,一名护士在准备由莫德纳和美国国立卫生研究院研发的冠状病毒疫苗。Hans Pennink/美联社j1g世界播


*Moderna announced Monday that its coronavirus vaccine candidate was found to be 94.5% effective in preventing COVID-19 in clinical trials. j1g世界播

*现代周一宣布,其冠状病毒候选疫苗在临床试验中发现,预防新冠肺炎的有效率为94.5%。j1g世界播


*The vaccine requires two shots administered four weeks apart, which could make distribution more complicated. j1g世界播

*疫苗需要间隔四周注射两针,这可能会使分发变得更加复杂。j1g世界播


*People may need additional booster shots later, experts say. j1g世界播

*专家说,人们以后可能需要额外的强化注射。j1g世界播


Two coronavirus vaccine candidates now lead the pack. j1g世界播

两种冠状病毒候选疫苗现在处于领先地位。j1g世界播


Moderna, a Massachusetts-based biotech firm, announced Monday that its vaccine is 94.5% effective in preventing COVID-19. It's the second company to report positive results from the final stage of clinical trials: Last week, Pfizer and BioNTech reported that their vaccine was found to be more than 90% effective. j1g世界播

总部位于马萨诸塞州的现代生物科技公司周一宣布,其疫苗预防新冠肺炎的有效率为94.5%。这是第二家在临床试验最后阶段报告阳性结果的公司:上周,辉瑞公司和BioNTech公司报告说,他们的疫苗被发现有效率超过90%。j1g世界播


"Now we have two vaccines that are really quite effective. I think this is a really strong step forward to where we want to be about getting control of this outbreak," Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, told NBC's Today on Monday. j1g世界播

周一,美国国家过敏症和传染病研究所所长安东尼·福奇在接受美国全国广播公司《今日》采访时表示:“现在我们有了两种非常有效的疫苗。我认为这是我们在控制疫情方面迈出的非常有力的一步。”(美国国家过敏和传染病研究所所长安东尼·福奇)周一在接受美国全国广播公司(NBC)“今日”采访时表示:“现在我们有两种疫苗非常有效。j1g世界播


Both Moderna and Pfizer's vaccines require two shots. Moderna's two doses are administered a month apart, while Pfizer'sare given three weeks apart. j1g世界播

现代和辉瑞的疫苗都需要注射两针。莫德纳的两次剂量间隔一个月,而辉瑞的两剂间隔三周。j1g世界播


Many other vaccines — including the one that protects against measles, mumps, and rubella — also require back-to-back doses to be most effective. Other coronavirus vaccine candidates still in trials may require two shots as well, including AstraZeneca's; the company's phase 3 trial is testing two shots given four weeks apart. Johnson & Johnson, meanwhile, is testing both a single-dose and a two-dose vaccine in simultaneous phase 3 trials. j1g世界播

许多其他疫苗--包括预防麻疹、腮腺炎和风疹的疫苗--也需要背靠背的剂量才能最有效。其他仍在试验中的冠状病毒候选疫苗可能也需要注射两针,包括阿斯利康的;该公司的第三阶段试验正在测试相隔四周的两针。与此同时,强生公司正在同时进行3期试验,同时测试单剂和双剂疫苗。j1g世界播


But a two-dose regimen comes with supply-chain challenges and the possibility that not everyone will return to a doctor's office for the critical second shot. j1g世界播

但是,两剂疗法伴随着供应链的挑战,而且可能不是每个人都会回到医生的办公室进行关键的第二针注射。j1g世界播


Keeping the vaccines cool j1g世界播

保持疫苗的冷藏。j1g世界播


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Lab tech Sendy Puerto processes blood samples from Moderna's coronavirus vaccine trial, September 2, 2020 in Miami, Florida. Taimy Alvarez/AP j1g世界播

2020年9月2日,佛罗里达州迈阿密,实验室技术人员森迪·波多黎各正在处理莫德纳冠状病毒疫苗试验的血液样本。泰米·阿尔瓦雷斯(Taimy Alvarez)/美联社j1g世界播


In earlier phases of their clinical trials, both Moderna and Pfizer reported that participants' virus-neutralizing antibody levels increased after a second dose. j1g世界播

在临床试验的早期阶段,莫德纳和辉瑞都报告说,参与者的病毒中和抗体水平在第二次注射后有所增加。j1g世界播


But a double-dose vaccine will require twice as many vials, syringes, refrigerators, and clinic visits at a time when such resources are already limited. j1g世界播

但是,在这种资源已经有限的情况下,双剂量疫苗将需要两倍的瓶子、注射器、冰箱和诊所就诊。j1g世界播


Moderna's shot, at least, doesn't require a deep-freeze. It can be stored at standard refrigerator temperatures for up to a month, the company said on Monday. j1g世界播

莫迪纳的拍摄,至少不需要冷冻。该公司周一表示,它可以在标准冰箱温度下储存长达一个月。j1g世界播


The Pfizer vaccine, however, needs to be shipped and stored at minus 94 degrees Fahrenheit — more than 100 degrees colder than standard refrigeration temperatures. Once it's moved to a standard fridge, it only keeps for five days. j1g世界播

然而,辉瑞疫苗需要运输和储存在零下94华氏度-比标准冷藏温度低100多度。一旦移到标准冰箱,它只能保存五天。j1g世界播


So getting Pfizer's shot from where it's produced into patients' arms requires dry ice, special freezers, and a storage timeline with little room for error. That poses a formidable challenge for distribution in rural areas and the developing world, particularly in places that lack reliable electricity or the funds to purchase special freezers. j1g世界播

因此,要将辉瑞的注射剂从生产的地方送入患者的手臂,需要干冰、特殊的冰柜和几乎没有出错余地的储存时间表。这对农村地区和发展中国家的配电构成了巨大的挑战,特别是在缺乏可靠电力或资金购买特殊冰柜的地方。j1g世界播


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Scientist Xinhua Yan works in the lab at Moderna in Cambridge, Massachusetts on February 28, 2020. David L. Ryan/The Boston Globe/Getty Images j1g世界播

2020年2月28日,科学家严新华在马萨诸塞州剑桥市莫迪纳的实验室工作。大卫·L·瑞安/《波士顿环球报》/盖蒂图片j1g世界播


It could also be difficult to get 100% of vaccine recipients to return for a follow-up shot. j1g世界播

让100%的疫苗接受者回来进行后续注射也可能是困难的。j1g世界播


"The more complicated the schedule, the more difficult it is to get people to come in," Walt Orenstein, the former director of the US National Immunization Program, previously told Business Insider. j1g世界播

美国国家免疫项目前主任沃尔特·奥伦斯坦(Walt Orenstein)此前告诉“商业内幕”(Business Insider):“日程安排越复杂,让人们进来的难度就越大。”j1g世界播


For example, research has found that less than one-third of young women who got the first shot of the human papillomavirus vaccine — which primarily targets viruses that cause cervical cancer — returned for the remaining two doses to complete the series. j1g世界播

例如,研究发现,在接种了第一针人类乳头瘤病毒疫苗(主要针对导致宫颈癌的病毒)的年轻女性中,只有不到三分之一的人会回来接种剩下的两剂疫苗来完成这一系列疫苗的接种。j1g世界播


We may need 'revaccination at periodic intervals' j1g世界播

我们可能需要“定期重新接种疫苗”。j1g世界播


Challenges could snowball if it turns out that people need to get revaccinated regularly. j1g世界播

如果事实证明人们需要定期接种疫苗,挑战可能会像滚雪球一样滚雪球般扩大。j1g世界播


Scientists haven't been able to study the new coronavirus long enough to determine how long immunity lasts, but some evidence suggests people could get reinfected. That's not because of new, distinct strains, which is the primary reason we need a new flu shot each year. Rather, research has found that that coronavirus antibodies dissipate after weeks or months, which could mean our immunity might be similarly transient. j1g世界播

科学家对这种新型冠状病毒的研究时间还不够长,无法确定免疫能持续多久,但一些证据表明,人们可能会再次感染。这并不是因为新的、不同的病毒株,这是我们每年需要注射新的流感疫苗的主要原因。相反,研究发现,冠状病毒抗体在几周或几个月后就会消散,这可能意味着我们的免疫力可能也是短暂的。j1g世界播


Our immune systems have more than just that line of defense, though, so many questions remain about immunity to the virus. j1g世界播

然而,我们的免疫系统不仅有这条防线,对病毒的免疫力还有很多问题。j1g世界播


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A tube with a solution containing coronavirus antibodies. Thomas Peter/Reuters j1g世界播

含有冠状病毒抗体溶液的试管。托马斯·彼得/路透社j1g世界播


"If immunity does turn out to be fleeting, we'll need a plan of a vaccination plus a booster, or revaccination at periodic intervals," Marm Kilpatrick, a disease ecologist, previously told Business Insider. j1g世界播

疾病生态学家玛姆·基尔帕特里克(Marm Kilpatrick)此前告诉“商业内幕”(Business Insider):“如果免疫力确实转瞬即逝,我们将需要一个疫苗加强化疫苗的计划,或者定期重新接种疫苗。”j1g世界播


It's not a deal-breaker if people become susceptible to reinfection, though. j1g世界播

然而,如果人们变得容易再次感染,这并不是交易的破坏者。j1g世界播


"This happens for a lot of vaccines," Florian Krammer, a vaccinologist at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, previously told Business Insider."It's not a problem. You can get revaccinated." j1g世界播

西奈山伊坎医学院(Icahn School Of Medicine)的疫苗专家弗洛里安·克拉默(Florian Krammer)此前对《商业内幕》(Business Insider)表示:“很多疫苗都会出现这种情况。这不是问题,你可以重新接种疫苗。”j1g世界播


That's what booster shots are for. Your tetanus vaccine, for example, requires a booster every decade. The question is how frequently follow-up coronavirus shots might be needed. j1g世界播

这就是助推器注射的目的。例如,你的破伤风疫苗每十年需要一次加强剂。问题是,后续冠状病毒疫苗注射的频率可能有多高。j1g世界播


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A healthcare worker injects a patient with the Pfizer and BioNTech vaccine in a phase 3 trial in Turkey, October 2020. Dogukan Keskinkilic/Anadolu Agency via Getty Images j1g世界播

2020年10月,土耳其,一名医护人员在第三阶段试验中为一名患者注射辉瑞和BioNTech疫苗。多库坎·凯斯金基里奇/阿纳多卢通讯社(Getty Images)j1g世界播


Experts won't be able to answer that question, or determine whether boosters will become part of the protocol at all, until a while after the first vaccines get rolled out. j1g世界播

在第一批疫苗推出一段时间后,专家们才能回答这个问题,也无法确定加强疫苗是否会成为方案的一部分。j1g世界播


"Once we start seeing vaccine failures increasing, then we can consider booster doses," Orenstein said. "But we don't know at this stage whether that will be necessary." j1g世界播

奥伦斯坦说:“一旦我们开始看到疫苗失效的增加,那么我们就可以考虑加强剂量。”“但我们目前还不知道是否有必要这么做。”j1g世界播


According to Moderna CEO Stephane Bancel, the company plans to produce 100 million doses — enough to vaccinate 50 million people — by the end of March 2021. j1g世界播

据Modern na首席执行官斯蒂芬·班塞尔(Stephane Bancel)表示,该公司计划在2021年3月底之前生产1亿剂疫苗-足以为5000万人接种疫苗。j1g世界播

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