尼日利亚绿区外,圣战分子统治道路

2020-11-19 20:05

Outside Nigeria’s ‘Green Zone,’ Jihadists Rule the Road JNV世界播

尼日利亚绿区外,圣战分子统治道路JNV世界播


MAIDUGURI, Nigeria—Traveling by road into Maiduguri, the capital of Nigeria’s northeast, has become one of the most dangerous journeys on earth. JNV世界播

尼日利亚迈杜古里--从公路前往尼日利亚东北部首府迈杜古里,已成为地球上最危险的旅程之一。JNV世界播


Vehicles entering the sprawling, sun-baked city pass under banners that welcome visitors to the “Home of Peace,” a nickname coined in happier times. JNV世界播

进入这座阳光灿烂的城市的车辆在欢迎游客来到“和平之家”的横幅下通过。“和平之家”是在经济较好的时候创造的一个绰号。JNV世界播


But in the past six months alone, more than 200 people have been murdered or kidnapped on the four main highways that head into a town now more famous as the birthplace of the Boko Haram insurgency, according to analysis from the Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project, interviews with soldiers and state officials. The attacks are conducted by militants fighting for Boko Haram and a splinter group loyal to Islamic State. With each passing month they become more brazen, targeting civilians, aid workers, soldiers and even the state’s most powerful politicians. JNV世界播

但是,根据武装冲突地点和事件数据项目的分析,以及对士兵和政府官员的采访,仅在过去六个月里,就有200多人在通往博科圣地叛乱发源地的四条主要高速公路上被谋杀或绑架。这座小镇现在更出名的是博科圣地叛乱的发源地。这些袭击是为博科圣地和一个忠于伊斯兰国的分裂组织而战的武装分子发动的。在过去的一个月里,他们变得更加肆无忌惮,目标是平民、救援人员、士兵,甚至是该州最有权势的政客。JNV世界播


In September, jihadists attacked the heavily armed convoy of the governor of Borno state, Babagana Zulum, on the road from his Maiduguri office to Baga, near the border with Chad, leaving 20 people dead and forcing one of Nigeria’s most powerful men to be rushed into an armored vehicle amid a hail of bullets. In July, 37 Nigerian special forces soldiers were killed in a militant ambush on the Damboa road, which leads south out of the city. Two weeks later, the extremists released a video showing the execution of five aid workers they had abducted on the Monguno road, which heads north toward Lake Chad. JNV世界播

今年9月,圣战分子袭击了博尔诺州州长巴巴加纳·祖勒姆(Babagana Zulum)全副武装的车队,当时他正从迈杜古里(Maiduguri)的办公室前往靠近乍得边境的巴加(Baga),造成20人死亡,迫使尼日利亚最有权势的人之一在枪林弹雨中被紧急送上一辆装甲车。今年7月,37名尼日利亚特种部队士兵在丹博阿公路上的一次武装伏击中丧生,丹博阿公路通往该市南部。两周后,极端分子发布了一段视频,显示他们在通往乍得湖的蒙古诺公路上绑架的五名救援人员被处决。JNV世界播


In recent weeks, the jihadists have abducted dozens more people, including government officials from the Ministry of Reconstruction, Rehabilitation and Resettlement, and on Tuesday, seven guests from a wedding party including the bride. JNV世界播

最近几周,圣战分子又绑架了数十人,其中包括重建、恢复和安置部的政府官员。周二,包括新娘在内的七名参加婚礼的宾客被绑架。JNV世界播


“Whenever we leave the road fromMaiduguri, we just say our final goodbyes to our family in case we don’t return,” said Ahmed Shehu, chairman ofBorno’s Civil Society Forum, who lost a friend in a militant attack this summer. “The terrorists rule the road.” JNV世界播

博尔诺的公民社会论坛(Civil Society Forum)主席艾哈迈德·谢胡(Ahmed Shehu)说,“每当我们离开迈杜古里的道路时,我们都会向家人说最后的再见,以防我们再也不会回来。”谢胡在今年夏天的一次武装袭击中失去了一位朋友。“恐怖分子控制着道路。”JNV世界播


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A victim of an attack on the convoy of Borno state’s governor was buried in Maiduguri on Sept. 26. JNV世界播

博尔诺州州长车队遇袭的一名受害者于9月9日被埋葬在迈杜古里。26.JNV世界播


The highway attacks have become so frequent in recent months that some are no longer even reported. JNV世界播

近几个月来,高速公路袭击事件变得如此频繁,以至于一些袭击事件甚至不再被报道。JNV世界播


Soldiers and Maiduguri residents who travel the roads say the extremists regularly erect mobile checkpoints, searching for Christians and government employees to kidnap for ransom or execute on the roadside. International aid agencies, including the Red Cross and the International Rescue Committee, have stopped leaving Maiduguri by road after their employees were killed, forcing aid workers to travel to refugee camps by helicopter and light aircraft. Even aid-agency aircraft were briefly grounded in July after a militant attack on a United Nations helicopter, but have since resumed flights. Truck and taxi drivers with no option but to ply the road can only travel on most major routes with a military escort, yet some complain that makes them even more of a target. JNV世界播

走在路上的士兵和迈杜古里居民说,极端分子经常设立流动检查站,搜查基督徒和政府雇员,以换取赎金或在路边处决。包括红十字会和国际救援委员会在内的国际援助机构在其雇员遇难后已停止陆路离开迈杜古里,迫使救援人员乘坐直升机和轻型飞机前往难民营。就连援助机构的飞机也曾在7月份因武装分子袭击联合国直升机而短暂停飞,但此后又恢复了飞行。卡车和出租车司机别无选择,只能在军队的护送下在大多数主要路线上行驶,但一些人抱怨说,这让他们更容易成为攻击目标。JNV世界播


The swelling tide of lawlessness on the highways connecting Nigeria’s largest northeastern towns comes amid the government’s faltering strategy to combat a decadelong insurgency that has metastasized into one of the world’s deadliest jihadist campaigns. JNV世界播

在连接尼日利亚东北部最大城镇的高速公路上,无法无天的浪潮愈演愈烈,与此同时,尼日利亚政府打击长达十年的叛乱的战略步履蹒跚,叛乱已经演变为世界上最致命的圣战运动之一。JNV世界播


President Muhammadu Buhari has repeatedly claimed that Boko Haram and its affiliates have been technically defeated. But since last year, the militants have been advancing, overrunning dozens of smaller military bases and looting the weapons inside. According to the U.S. Council on Foreign Relations,the period since July 2018 has been deadlier for Nigeria’s security-service personnel than any other time in the decadelong conflict. JNV世界播

总统穆罕默德·布哈里(Muhammadu Buhari)一再声称,博科圣地及其附属机构在技术上已经被击败。但自去年以来,武装分子一直在推进,他们占领了数十个规模较小的军事基地,并洗劫了里面的武器。根据美国外交关系委员会(U.S.Council on Foreign Relations)的数据,自2018年7月以来,尼日利亚安全服务人员的死亡人数比这场长达十年的冲突中的任何时候都要致命。JNV世界播


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Maiduguri has seen its population swell in recent years as refugees fled the violent insurgency of Boko Haram. JNV世界播

近年来,随着难民逃离博科圣地的暴力叛乱,迈杜古里的人口不断膨胀JNV世界播


Stung by repeated defeats, Nigeria’s military overhauled its strategy, consolidating forces in cities in so-called super camps designed to be too large for the insurgents to overwhelm. JNV世界播

在屡次失败的刺激下,尼日利亚军方彻底调整了其战略,在所谓的超级营地整合了军队,这些超级营地的规模太大,叛乱分子无法压倒。JNV世界播


But the move has created a paradox: Garrisoned cities likeMaidugurifeel more secure but the surrounding roads and countryside have become a kind of no man’s land, plagued by even deeper levels of insecurity. Farmers tending to crops beyond the city limits are protected by a new vigilante force called the Agro Rangers. A growing number of villages are under the extremists’ control, with militants taxing and policing the local population and instituting their own brand of Sharia justice. The highways are where these two systems meet. JNV世界播

但此举制造了一个悖论:像迈杜古里这样有驻军的城市可能会感到更安全,但周围的道路和农村已经成为一种无人区,受到更深层次的不安全的困扰。在城市范围之外照看农作物的农民受到一支名为农业骑警(Agro Rangers)的新义警部队的保护。越来越多的村庄处于极端分子的控制之下,武装分子对当地居民征税并维持治安,并建立了自己品牌的伊斯兰教法正义。高速公路是这两个系统的交汇点。JNV世界播


“Maidugurihas become a green zone, but step outside the city and you immediately see the reality,” said Bulama Bukarti, an associate with the Center for Strategic and International Studies, a Washington-based think tank. “The attacks on these roads are continuous and the militants can pick off whatever targets they choose.” JNV世界播

华盛顿智库战略与国际研究中心(Center For Strategic And International Studies)的助理布拉马·布卡蒂(Bulama Bukarti)表示:“迈杜古里已成为绿区,但走出城外,你会立即看到现实。”“对这些道路的袭击是持续不断的,武装分子可以选择任何他们选择的目标。”JNV世界播


The epidemic of roadside violence is spreading across Nigeria’s northern states, with dozens of attacks on the roads between the cities of Kaduna, Kano and Abuja. On Tuesday, 12 police officers were kidnapped between the cities of Zamfara and Katsina, the president’s hometown. JNV世界播

路边暴力的流行正在尼日利亚北部各州蔓延,卡杜纳、卡诺和阿布贾之间的道路上发生了数十起袭击事件。周二,12名警察在赞法拉和总统家乡卡西纳之间被绑架。JNV世界播


Nigeria’s government and military says the super-camp policy is a success. But senior defense officials admit privately it is unpopular inside the military. One official said that it created a “deliberate stalemate” allowing beleaguered generals to claim victory as their bases are no longer being overrun. “Outside Maiduguri, it’s chaos,” the official said. JNV世界播

尼日利亚政府和军方表示,超级营地政策是成功的。但高级国防官员私下承认,这在军队内部并不受欢迎。一位官员说,这造成了一种“蓄意的僵局”,使得陷入困境的将军们可以宣布胜利,因为他们的基地不再被攻占。这位官员说:“迈杜古里外面一片混乱。”JNV世界播


The city of Maiduguri is no stranger to insecurity. The capital of Borno state that was once a British colonial outpost is a sweltering jumble of low-slung buildings, home to some two million people on the southern edge of the Sahel, the arid band of territory that borders the Sahara. More than a sixth of that population have arrived as refugees since the summer of 2009, when the founder of Boko Haram, a charismatic cleric named Mohammed Yusuf, was captured then executed in the city’s central police station. Families displaced from across Nigeria’s northeast live crammed into Maiduguri’s abandoned apartment buildings and cement factories, and in 14 overflowing refugee camps where they sleep in tarpaulin tents and grass huts. JNV世界播

迈杜古里市对不安全并不陌生。博尔诺州的首府曾经是英国的殖民前哨,现在是一堆闷热的低矮建筑,萨赫勒南部边缘约有200万人居住,萨赫勒是与撒哈拉接壤的干旱地带。2009年夏天,富有魅力的神职人员穆罕默德·优素福(Mohammed Yusuf)被捕后,博科圣地的创始人穆罕默德·优素福(Mohammed Yusuf)在该市中央警察局被处决,自那以来,已有超过六分之一的人以难民身份抵达这里。来自尼日利亚东北部的流离失所家庭挤在迈杜古里废弃的公寓楼和水泥厂里,以及14个人满为患的难民营里,他们睡在防水帆布帐篷和草屋里。JNV世界播


Civilians have fled from the villages to the cities as Nigeria’s army dramatically expanded its presence. In Maiduguri, the Maimalari barracks on the city’s northern edge is the headquarters of the war against Boko Haram and home to more than 1,000 soldiers. JNV世界播

随着尼日利亚军队戏剧性地扩大其存在,平民已经从村庄逃到了城市。在迈杜古里,城市北部边缘的迈马拉里军营是打击博科圣地战争的总部,有1000多名士兵。JNV世界播


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Taxi driver Sani Adamu is one of many motorists who have been attacked by Boko Haram along the Maiduguri-Damaturu road. JNV世界播

出租车司机萨尼·阿达姆(Sani Adamu)是博科圣地在迈杜古里-达马图鲁(Maiduguri-Damaturu)公路上遭到袭击的众多驾车者之一JNV世界播


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Mr. Adamu shows an X-ray scan of a bullet lodged in his spine after the attack. JNV世界播

阿达姆展示了袭击发生后一颗子弹卡在他脊椎内的X光扫描JNV世界播


But in recent months, the roads have become increasingly deadly. JNV世界播

但近几个月来,这些道路变得越来越致命。JNV世界播


Mr. Zulum, the Borno state governor, once drove a taxi to pay his way through college and has witnessed how safety on the region’s roads has deteriorated. His convoy has been attacked twice in recent months. He told President Buhari in August that the super-camp strategy was “unwise and not working.” JNV世界播

博尔诺州州长祖勒姆(Zulum)曾开着出租车去支付大学学费,他亲眼目睹了该地区道路安全状况的恶化。他的车队近几个月来两次遭到袭击。他在8月份告诉布哈里总统,超级阵营战略是“不明智的,也不起作用的”。JNV世界播


“The governor wants new thinking to stop these endless killings,” said Isa Gusau, Mr. Zulum’s media adviser. “We cannot continue to do the same thing over and over and expect a different result.” JNV世界播

祖勒姆的媒体顾问伊萨·古索(Isa Gusau)说,“州长想要新的思维来阻止这些没完没了的杀戮。”“我们不能一而再、再而三地做同样的事情,并期待不同的结果。”JNV世界播


Many of the drivers and their passengers are losing their lives. JNV世界播

许多司机和乘客正在失去生命。JNV世界播


Ahmadu Kachalla, a 30-year-old bus driver, said that on three occasions he has had to make an emergency U-turn and speed away after realizing the checkpoint ahead was manned not by the Nigerian army, but by jihadist fighters. JNV世界播

30岁的公交车司机艾哈迈杜·卡查拉(Ahmadu Kachalla)说,有三次他不得不紧急掉头加速离开,因为他意识到前方的检查站不是由尼日利亚军队把守的,而是由圣战战士把守的。JNV世界播


“The attacks are now so common, they have become almost normal,” he said, before describing a recent incident where he was stopped by soldiers at a military checkpoint who informed him Boko Haram had begun an attack further ahead. JNV世界播

他说:“这些袭击现在很常见,几乎已经很正常了。”随后,他描述了最近发生的一起事件。在那次事件中,他在一个军事检查站被士兵拦下,士兵告诉他,博科圣地在前方开始了一次袭击。JNV世界播


His colleague Sani Adamu still has a bullet in his back after being shot by Boko Haram while driving along the Damaturu road. Mr. Adamu said the fighters emerged on the roadside and began spraying the traffic with automatic gunfire. One of his passengers was killed. Another lost both his eyes. JNV世界播

他的同事萨尼·阿达姆(Sani Adamu)在达马图鲁公路上开车时被博科圣地开枪击中,背部仍有一颗子弹。阿达姆说,武装分子出现在路边,开始用自动步枪向车流扫射。他的一名乘客遇难。另一位失去了双眼。JNV世界播


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Passengers at Kasuwar Shanu motor park in Maiduguri awaited the start of their journey on Oct. 22 at 3 p.m., the allocated time for travel ordered by Nigerian forces seeking to rid the roads of jihadists. JNV世界播

10月22日下午3点,迈杜古里(Maiduguri)卡苏瓦尔·沙努(Kasuwar Shanu)汽车公园的乘客等待出发,这是尼日利亚军队下令的旅行时间,目的是清除道路上的圣战分子JNV世界播


“We need help from the government,” said Mr. Adamu, showing an X-ray of the bullet trapped near his spine. “We have no other occupation to cater for our families other than driving on these dangerous roads.” JNV世界播

“我们需要政府的帮助,”阿达姆说,他展示了一张子弹卡在脊椎附近的X光片。“除了在这些危险的道路上开车外,我们没有其他职业来照顾我们的家人。”JNV世界播


Other drivers say the only way to survive is to pay protection money to Boko Haram. Some drivers say that even if they avoid the militants’ mobile checkpoints, members of security services will force them to pay a bribe, usually referred to as “water money.” JNV世界播

其他司机表示,生存的唯一途径是向博科圣地支付保护费。一些司机说,即使他们避开武装分子的流动检查站,安全部门的成员也会强迫他们行贿,通常被称为“水费”。JNV世界播


The roads have become perilous even for Nigeria’s most elite fighting force. Two soldiers from Maimalari base said on condition of anonymity that they saw dozens of bodies brought back to the base after an ambush killed at least 38 special-forces soldiers on the Damboa road several months ago. “The bodies were recovered and transported to Maiduguri for burial,” he said. JNV世界播

即使对于尼日利亚最精锐的战斗力量来说,道路也变得危险起来。迈马拉里基地的两名不愿透露姓名的士兵说,几个月前在丹博阿路上的一次伏击导致至少38名特种部队士兵死亡后,他们看到数十具身体被运回基地。他说:“身体已被找到,并被运往迈杜古里埋葬。”JNV世界播


The Shehu of Borno, the highest-ranking Islamic traditional rulerin the region—himself a survivor of a Boko Haram attack on the road in front of his Maiduguri palace—issued a short but chilling statement demanding government action.“No one is safe,” he said. JNV世界播

博尔诺的谢胡(Shehu Of Borno)发表了一份简短但令人不寒而栗的声明,要求政府采取行动。博尔诺是该地区级别最高的伊斯兰传统统治者,他本人也是博科圣地(Boko Haram)在迈杜古里(Maiduguri)宫殿前的道路上遭到袭击的幸存者。“没有人是安全的,”他说。JNV世界播

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