没有人喜欢艾米·康尼·巴雷特的堕胎答案

2020-10-14 08:00

No One Likes Amy Coney Barrett’s Abortion Answer NbN世界播

没有人喜欢艾米·康尼·巴雷特的堕胎答案NbN世界播


暂无NbN世界播


Amy Coney Barrett could no longer avoid the question that has defined her nomination to fill Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg’s seat on the Supreme Court: “Do you agree,” asked Senator Dianne Feinstein of California during confirmation hearings today, “that Roe was wrongly decided?” NbN世界播

艾米·科尼·巴雷特(Amy Coney Barrett)再也回避不了一个问题,这个问题决定了她被提名填补最高法院大法官露丝·巴德·金斯伯格(Ruth Bader Ginsburg)的席位:“你同意吗,”加利福尼亚州参议员黛安·范斯坦(Dianne Feinstein)在今天的确认听证会上问道,“罗伊的决定是错误的吗?”NbN世界播


“I completely understand why you are asking the question,” Barrett responded, looking grave. But “I can’t pre-commit or say, ‘Yes, I’m going in with some agenda,’ because I’m not. I don’t have any agenda.” The question may be unavoidable, but that doesn’t mean she will answer it. NbN世界播

“我完全理解你为什么要问这个问题,”巴雷特表情严肃地回答道。但“我不能预先承诺或说,‘是的,我要参加一些议程,’因为我没有。我没有任何议程。“。这个问题可能不可避免,但这并不意味着她会回答。NbN世界播


We will not know by the end of Barrett’s nomination hearings how she would rule on an abortion-related case. Nearly 50 years ago, the Supreme Court ruled in Roe v. Wade that American women have a constitutional right to end their pregnancies, and since then, the boundaries of the abortion debate have largely been determined by nine unelected justices who have no accountability to voters. For many years, as the Court has continued to uphold abortion rights, this fact has frustrated conservatives, many of whom want the justices to overturn Roe and return the question to the states to decide. NbN世界播

到巴雷特的提名听证会结束时,我们还不知道她将如何裁决一起与堕胎有关的案件。近50年前,最高法院在罗伊诉韦德案(Roe v.Wade)中裁定,美国女性有宪法权利终止怀孕,从那时起,堕胎辩论的边界基本上由九名未经选举产生的法官决定,他们对选民没有责任。多年来,随着最高法院继续维护堕胎权,这一事实一直让保守派感到沮丧,他们中的许多人希望大法官推翻Roe,并将问题送回各州决定。NbN世界播


Now that conservatives are winning and are about to hold a definitive majority on the Supreme Court bench, however, liberals are exasperated that they have little ability to get Barrett on the record about what she might do regarding abortion. Barrett maintains that she will be a fair justice and can be trusted to uphold the rule of law, while Democrats have depicted her as a committed conservative ideologue who will surely undermine abortion rights in the United States. The only way to know the answer is to wait and see what she does on the bench, after her lifetime appointment is secure. NbN世界播

然而,现在保守派正在获胜,并即将在最高法院的法官席上占据绝对多数,自由派感到愤怒的是,他们几乎没有能力让巴雷特在堕胎问题上做些什么。巴雷特坚持认为,她将是一名公平的法官,可以信任她会维护法治,而民主党人则将她描绘成一个坚定的保守派理论家,肯定会破坏美国的堕胎权。知道答案的唯一方法就是等她的终身任期确定之后,看看她在替补席上做了什么。NbN世界播


Abundant evidence indicates that Barrett personally opposes abortion. She delivered a lecture to the Right to Life club at the University of Notre Dame, where she formerly taught constitutional law. While at the school, she joined an anti-abortion-rights faculty group. She added her name to a letter in the South Bend Tribune criticizing Roe’s “barbaric legacy.” “I signed it on the way out of church,” Barrett said, when questioned about the ad by Senator Patrick Leahy of Vermont. “It was consistent with the views of my church, and it simply said we support the right to life from conception to natural death.” Groups that oppose abortion rights have celebrated her nomination, and religious conservatives have openly hoped that she will one day write the decision that ends the legal right to abortion. NbN世界播

大量证据表明,巴雷特个人反对堕胎。她在圣母大学的生命权俱乐部发表了演讲,她曾在那里教授宪法。在学校期间,她加入了一个反堕胎权的教职员工团体。她在“南本德论坛报”(South Bend Tribune)的一封信上签下了自己的名字,信中批评了罗伊的“野蛮遗产”。当佛蒙特州参议员帕特里克·莱希(Patrick Leahy)问及这则广告时,巴雷特说:“我在离开教堂的路上签了名。”“这与我的教会的观点一致,它简单地说,我们支持从受孕到自然死亡的生命权。”反对堕胎权的团体庆祝她的提名,宗教保守派公开希望她有一天能写下结束堕胎合法权利的决定。NbN世界播


The question before the Senate, however, is whether Barrett would set aside her beliefs and faithfully follow the law as a Supreme Court justice. Barrett has assured senators that this is her intention: “My personal views don’t have anything to do with the way I would decide cases,” she told Leahy. “I don’t want anyone to be unclear about that.” NbN世界播

然而,摆在参议院面前的问题是,作为一名最高法院大法官,巴雷特是否会抛开她的信仰,忠实地遵守法律。巴雷特向参议员保证,这是她的意图:“我的个人观点与我裁决案件的方式没有任何关系,”她告诉Leahy。“我不希望任何人对此感到不清楚。”NbN世界播


This has become the standard way Supreme Court nominees approach controversial questions about their views: They don’t answer them. As justification, Barrett pointed to other women who have been nominated to the Supreme Court. During her confirmation hearing, Justice Elena Kagan refused to “grade precedent or give it a thumbs-up or a thumbs-down,” Barrett said. “It would actually be wrong and a violation of the canons for me to do that as a sitting judge.” She described the approach Ginsburg took to her hearings: “No hints. No previews. No forecasts.” Barrett aligned herself with Justice Antonin Scalia, the godfather of conservative legal thought, during her nomination ceremony at the White House, saying, “His judicial philosophy is mine too.” But she would not answer questions about what that meant, especially on contested issues such as abortion, during today’s hearings. “If I were confirmed, you’d get Justice Barrett, not Justice Scalia,” she said. NbN世界播

这已经成为最高法院提名人处理关于他们观点的有争议问题的标准方式:他们不回答这些问题。作为理由,巴雷特指出了其他被提名为最高法院法官的女性。巴雷特说,在确认听证会上,大法官埃琳娜·卡根(Elena Kagan)拒绝“给先例打分,也不赞成或反对”。“作为一名在任法官,我这样做实际上是错误的,也是违反教规的。”她描述了金斯伯格在听证会上采取的方式:“没有任何暗示。没有预览。没有预测。“。巴雷特在白宫举行的提名仪式上与保守派法律思想教父大法官安东宁·斯卡利亚(Antonin Scalia)结盟,她说,“他的司法哲学也是我的。”但在今天的听证会上,她不愿回答有关这意味着什么的问题,特别是在堕胎等有争议的问题上。“如果我被确认,你会得到巴雷特大法官,而不是斯卡利亚大法官,”她说。NbN世界播


Barrett seemed to walk into these hearings understanding that Democrats and the media would question her life choices and what they take to be her views. “I’ve tried to be on a media blackout for the sake of my mental health, but you know, you can’t keep yourself walled off from everything, and I’m aware of a lot of the caricatures that are floating around,” she said during an exchange with Senator Lindsey Graham of South Carolina today. She knew that her decision to have a large family, including two adopted children from Haiti, may surprise many Americans. She knew that her faith would become a matter of public debate, particularly after Feinstein told Barrett during a different confirmation hearing in 2017 that “the dogma lives loudly within you, and that’s of concern.” But Barrett stressed that she celebrates pluralism. “I have a life brimming with people who have made different choices, and I have never tried in my personal life to impose my choices on them,” she said. “The same is true professionally.” NbN世界播

巴雷特似乎在参加听证会时明白,民主党人和媒体会质疑她的人生选择,以及他们对她的观点的看法。她今天在与南卡罗来纳州参议员林赛·格雷厄姆(Lindsey Graham)交流时说,“为了我的心理健康,我一直试图封锁媒体,但你知道,你不能把自己与一切都隔绝开来,我知道有很多漫画在四处流传。”她知道,她决定要一个大家庭,其中包括两个从海地领养的孩子,这可能会让许多美国人感到惊讶。她知道她的信仰将成为一个公开辩论的问题,特别是在范斯坦在2017年的另一次确认听证会上告诉巴雷特,“这个教条在你心中响亮地存在,这是令人担忧的。”但巴雷特强调,她崇尚多元主义。她说:“我的生活中充斥着做出不同选择的人,在我的个人生活中,我从未试图将我的选择强加给他们。”“职业上也是如此。”NbN世界播


No matter how fair and equitable any judge or justice may be, research suggests that their personal views do, in fact, color how they rule. Scholars have argued that ideology and partisanship strongly shape justices’ records. There have been notable exceptions—this summer, for example, one of Donald Trump’s appointees, Justice Neil Gorsuch, wrote a sweeping decision affirming civil-rights protections for LGBTQ people. But most often, the justices decide controversial cases along ideological lines. Barrett comes out of a conservative legal world where scholars have spent significant time discussing which decisions should stand unchallenged, known as “superprecedents,” and which should remain open to revision. In an exchange with Senator Amy Klobuchar of Minnesota, Barrett stated that Roe shouldn’t have that untouchable status. Superprecedents are “cases so well settled that no political actors and no people seriously push for their overruling,” Barrett said. “I’m answering a lot of questions about Roe, which indicates that Roe doesn’t fall in that category.” But, she added carefully, “that doesn’t mean Roe should be overruled.” NbN世界播

研究表明,无论任何法官或正义多么公正,事实上,他们的个人观点确实影响了他们的裁决方式。学者们认为,意识形态和党派之争极大地影响了大法官的记录。也有一些值得注意的例外--例如,今年夏天,唐纳德·特朗普(Donald Trump)任命的大法官之一尼尔·戈萨奇(Neil Gorso)写了一份全面的决定,肯定了对LGBTQ人士的民权保护。但最常见的情况是,大法官按照意识形态路线裁决有争议的案件。巴雷特来自一个保守的法律界,在那里,学者们花了大量时间讨论哪些判决不应受到质疑,即所谓的“超级先例”,哪些应该继续接受修改。在与明尼苏达州参议员艾米·克洛布查尔(Amy Klobuchar)的交流中,巴雷特表示,罗不应该拥有那种不可触及的地位。巴雷特说,超级先例是“非常好地解决的案件,没有政治行为者,也没有人认真推动他们的否决”。“我回答了很多关于Roe的问题,这表明Roe不属于这一类。”但是,她小心翼翼地补充说,“这并不意味着罗应该被否决。”NbN世界播


Democrats have few tools to prove their case that Barrett’s appointment could lead to the end of constitutionally protected abortion rights in the U.S. Leahy and Feinstein went out of their way to compliment Barrett’s “lovely,” and conspicuously large, family. Senator Sheldon Whitehouse of Rhode Island brought an easel and a series of ominously fonted placards that he scribbled on with red Sharpie, purporting to show that Barrett’s vote on Roe has already been bought by conservative donors. NbN世界播

民主党人几乎没有工具来证明他们的理由,即对巴雷特的任命可能会导致美国宪法保护的堕胎权的终结。莱希和范斯坦特意赞扬了巴雷特“可爱的”和明显的大家庭。罗德岛州参议员谢尔顿·怀特豪斯(Sheldon Whitehouse)带来了一个画架和一系列带有不祥字体的标语牌,他用红色的夏皮在上面乱涂乱画,声称这表明巴雷特对罗的投票已经被保守派捐赠者买下了。NbN世界播


Even Supreme Court justices can’t unilaterally decide to revisit precedents they don’t like. “Judges can’t just wake up one day and say, ‘I have an agenda. I like guns, I hate guns; I like abortion, I hate abortion,’ and walk in like a royal queen and impose, you know, their will on the world,” Barrett said. Cases have “to wind their way through the process.” Until abortion cases inevitably do wind their way up to the Supreme Court, her role in shaping abortion jurisprudence will be a black box, with nothing voters or legislators can do about it. As Feinstein said, “It’s distressing not to get a straight answer.” NbN世界播

即使是最高法院的法官也不能单方面决定重新审查他们不喜欢的先例。“法官不能有一天醒来就说,‘我有一个议程。我喜欢枪,我讨厌枪;我喜欢堕胎,我讨厌堕胎,‘然后像王室女王一样走进来,把他们的意愿强加给世界,“巴雷特说。案件必须“在整个过程中卷土重来”。在堕胎案件不可避免地提交给最高法院之前,她在塑造堕胎判例方面的作用将是一个黑匣子,选民或立法者对此无能为力。正如范斯坦所说,“不能得到直截了当的答案是令人苦恼的。”NbN世界播

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